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Mirowski, Piotr; Madhavan, Deepak; Lecun, Yann; Kuzniecky, Ruben
"Classification of patterns of EEG synchronization for seizure prediction"
Clinical neurophysiology 2009 Nov; 120(11):1927-1940
OBJECTIVE: Research in seizure prediction from intracranial EEG has highlighted the usefulness of bivariate measures of brainwave synchronization. Spatio-temporal bivariate features are very high-dimensional and cannot be analyzed with conventional statistical methods. Hence, we propose state-of-the-art machine learning methods that handle high-dimensional inputs. METHODS: We computed bivariate features of EEG synchronization (cross-correlation, nonlinear interdependence, dynamical entrainment or wavelet synchrony) on the 21-patient Freiburg dataset. Features from all channel pairs and frequencies were aggregated over consecutive time points, to form patterns. Patient-specific machine learning-based classifiers (support vector machines, logistic regression or convolutional neural networks) were trained to discriminate interictal from preictal patterns of features. In this explorative study, we evaluated out-of-sample seizure prediction performance, and compared each combination of feature type and classifier. RESULTS: Among the evaluated methods, convolutional networks combined with wavelet coherence successfully predicted all out-of-sample seizures, without false alarms, on 15 patients, yielding 71% sensitivity and 0 false positives. CONCLUSIONS: Our best machine learning technique applied to spatio-temporal patterns of EEG synchronization outperformed previous seizure prediction methods on the Freiburg dataset. SIGNIFICANCE: By learning spatio-temporal dynamics of EEG synchronization, pattern recognition could capture patient-specific seizure precursors. Further investigation on additional datasets should include the seizure prediction horizon

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