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Gonzalez-Duarte, Alejandra; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Martinez, Jose; Rodriguez, Alcibiades J; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Axelrod, Felicia; Kaufmann, Horacio
"Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine features of Panayiotopoulos syndrome in three siblings"
Epilepsy & behavior 2011 Jul; 21(3):296-300
OBJECTIVE: Panayiotopoulos syndrome is a benign idiopathic childhood epilepsy characterized by altered autonomic activity at seizure onset. METHODS: Three siblings with Panayiotopoulos syndrome underwent 24-hour EEG recording and head-up tilt testing with continuous blood pressure and RR interval monitoring. Plasma catecholamines and vasopressin were measured while supine, upright, and during a typical seizure. RESULTS: Patient 1, a 12-year-old girl, had a history of involuntary lacrimation, abdominal pain, and recurrent episodes of loss of muscle tone and unresponsiveness followed by somnolence. Her EEG revealed bilateral frontotemporal spikes. Patient 2, a 10-year-old boy, had episodic headaches with pinpoint pupils, skin flushing of the face, trunk, and extremities, purple discoloration of hands and feet, diaphoresis, nausea, and vomiting. Tilt testing triggered a typical seizure after 9minutes; there was a small increase in blood pressure (+5/4mm Hg, systolic/diastolic) and pronounced increases in heart rate (+59bpm) and norepinephrine (+242pg/mL), epinephrine (+175pg/mL), and vasopressin (+22.1pg/mL) plasma concentrations. Serum glucose was elevated (206mg/dL). His EEG revealed right temporal and parietal spikes. Patient 3, an 8-year-old boy, had a history of restless legs at night, enuresis, night terrors, visual hallucinations, cyclic abdominal pain, and nausea. His EEG showed bitemporal spikes. CONCLUSION: Hypertension, tachycardia, and the release of vasopressin suggest activation of the central autonomic network during seizures in familial Panayiotopoulos syndrome. These autonomic and neuroendocrine features may be useful in the diagnosis and may have therapeutic implications

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