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Carlson, C; Dugan, P; French, J
"Progression to epilepsy surgery following presurgical evaluation" [Meeting Abstract]
Epilepsy currents 2012 2012; 12(1):-
Rationale: Resective surgical treatment can be curative in a large subset of patients with treatment resistant epilepsy. Despite the potential for seizure freedom following surgery, many patients do not progress to epilepsy surgery. It is presumed that the reasons for this are multifactorial and often stem from poor prognostic factors within the presurgical workup. This study was designed to explore potential barriers (both medical and social) to resective epilepsy surgery in a population of patients with a high likelihood of seizure freedom based upon initial MRI, EEG, and semiology data. Methods: Chart review of patients admitted to the New York University Langone Medical Center epilepsy monitoring unit from 1/1/2007 to 7/31/2008 identified 1,105 unique patients. Of these, 455 met inclusion criteria: age >=18, focal epilepsy diagnosis>=2 years, failed >=1 medication, and >=1 seizure three months prior to admission. Utilizing the Epilepsy Surgery Grading Scale (ESGS; Table 1), a score was calculated from MRI, EEG, semiology, and IQ data. Patients with scores categorizing them as Grade 1 (best likelihood of seizure freedom) were included for analysis. Patients with follow-up periods less than 6 months and those with previous resective surgeries were excluded (32 patients). Outcomes were assessed based upon last available follow-up up through June 1, 2011. Patients were classified as either seizure free or not seizure free. For patients not undergoing surgery, medical and surgical outpatient notes were reviewed to ascertain the reason(s) for not pursuing surgery. Results: Of the 423 patients, a total of 110 were Grade 1. Of all Grade 1 patients, 43 (39.1%) underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Two patients had less than one year of follow-up; 35/41 (85.4%) were seizure free. An additional 11 (10%) patients underwent intracranial EEG monitoring without resection. Of the 56 (50.9%) patients that did not undergo invasive monitoring or resective surgery within the period of follow-up, 15 (26.8%) were reported as seizure free at the time of last follow-up. For the remaining patients, multiple reasons were identified for not pursuing surgery. These findings are presented in Table 2. In brief, 2% are presently awaiting surgery, 21% the patient declined surgery, 7% reported adequate seizure control and declined surgery, 16% had no identifiable reason (unknown), 25% were lost to follow up, and 2% had insurance denials precluding surgery. Conclusions: These results indicate that multiple factors can contribute to patients failing to pursue epilepsy surgery, with over 1/2 of patients declining surgery due to seizure freedom, "adequate" seizure control or no desire to further pursue surgery despite continued seizures. In addition, 25% of patients were lost to follow-up, which does not preclude them having had resective surgery at another institution

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