Citation from the publications of

Devinsky O; Sato S; Theodore WH; Porter RJ
"Fear episodes due to limbic seizures with normal ictal scalp EEG: a subdural electrographic study"
Journal of clinical psychiatry 1989 Jan; 50(1):28-30
The authors present the case of a 13-year-old girl with episodes characterized by either staring with preserved consciousness or fear in whom functional illness was suspected. Video-EEG telemetry revealed no changes during 30 of 32 attacks. Subdural electrode recordings revealed epileptiform discharges in 30 of 37 episodes. The discharge was always localized to the electrodes recording from the inferomedial temporal region, with electrodes over the lateral convexity of the same temporal lobe showing no background changes. Although the detailed pathophysiology of panic attacks remains to be clarified, the authors point out that their case and other epileptic case studies are consistent with the possibility that excessive neuronal activity in medial temporal lobe structures is a necessary element of the underlying mechanism

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