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Devinsky, Orrin
"Diagnosis and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy"
Reviews in Neurological Diseases 2004 Winter; 1(1):2-9
Of the 1,200,000 Americans with partial epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) occurs in more than 400,000. Temporal lobe seizures are usually stereotypic in their symptoms and duration. A typical sequence is an aura followed by arrest of motor behavior, blank stare, and automatisms. Patients with TLE often show impairments in attention, memory, mental processing speed, executive functions, mood, personality, and drive-related behaviors. Interictal depression occurs in approximately one third of TLE patients. TLE is diagnosed by a history of characteristic partial seizure symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed by the capture of a typical episode during an electroencephalogram (EEG) or video-EEG, with epileptiform activity over one or both temporal regions. Video-EEG monitoring has revolutionized diagnosis and should be considered in patients in whom diagnosis is uncertain. TLE is treated with medications, resective surgery, and vagus nerve stimulation. Epilepsy surgery should be considered in all patients with refractory partial epilepsy

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