Citation from the publications of

Weiner HL; Rothman M; Miller DC; Ziff EB
"Pediatric brain tumors express multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including novel cell adhesion kinases"
Pediatric neurosurgery 1996 Aug; 25(2):64-71; discussion 71
We have used the polymerase chain reaction to clone and characterize growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) expressed in 3 pathologically distinct pediatric brain tumors, an anaplastic ependymoma, a glioblastoma multiforme and a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). These neoplasms are presumed to be derived from embryonic neuroepithelial precursor cells of the central nervous system. This cloning demonstrated expression of 24 distinct kinase genes: 16 receptor type kinases and 8 nonreceptor type kinases. The expression of 6 receptors, including Hek2, IRR, Ryk, FGFR3, and 2 members of the newly identified cell adhesion kinase receptor family, DDR and TKT, in such tumors has not been reported previously. Northern analysis of mRNA levels revealed DDR expression in 6 of 7 pediatric brain tumors including an ependymoma, PNET, glioblastoma and astrocytoma, and also in an adult pheochromocytoma. Thus, the DDR cell adhesion kinase may be widely expressed in pediatric brain tumors. Also, PCR cloning may be an effective procedure for characterizing RTKs in clinical tissue samples and revealing the expression of novel RTK species

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