Reach and Adoption of a Geriatric Emergency Department Accreditation Program in the United States
Kennedy, Maura; Lesser, Adriane; Israni, Juhi; Liu, Shan W; Santangelo, Ilianna; Tidwell, Nicole; Southerland, Lauren T; Carpenter, Christopher R; Biese, Kevin; Ahmad, Surriya; Hwang, Ula
STUDY OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to describe the reach and adoption of Geriatric Emergency Department Accreditation (GEDA) program and care processes instituted at accredited geriatric emergency departments (EDs). METHODS:We analyzed a cross-section of a cohort of US EDs that received GEDA from May 2018 to March 2021. We obtained data from the American College of Emergency Physicians and publicly available sources. Data included GEDA level, geographic location, urban/rural designation, and care processes instituted. Frequencies and proportions and median and interquartile ranges were used to summarize categorical and continuous data, respectively. RESULTS:Over the study period, 225 US geriatric ED accreditations were issued and included in our analysis-14 Level 1, 21 Level 2, and 190 Level 3 geriatric EDs; 5 geriatric EDs reapplied and received higher-level accreditation after initial accreditation at a lower level. Only 9 geriatric EDs were in rural regions. There was significant heterogeneity in protocols enacted at geriatric EDs; minimizing urinary catheter use and fall prevention were the most common. CONCLUSION:There has been rapid growth in geriatric EDs, driven by Level 3 accreditation. Most geriatric EDs are in urban areas, indicating the potential need for expansion beyond these areas. Future research evaluating the impact of GEDA on health care utilization and patient-oriented outcomes is needed.
Asenapine in the Treatment of Bipolar Depression
El-Mallakh, Rif S; Nuss, Sharon; Gao, Dong; Gao, Yonglin; Ahmad, Surriya Colleen; Schrodt, Clare; Adler, Caleb
Objectives:) receptor antagonist, was examined for efficacy as an antidepressant in depressed bipolar subjects. It was predicted that subjects with the genetic variant of the short form of the serotonin transporter (5HTTR) would be more likely to respond. Experimental Design:A subset of patients participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of asenapine in bipolar I depression also underwent genetic testing for the 5HTTR. Montgomery Ã…sberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score was â‰¥ 26 prior to randomization to asenapine or placebo for 8 weeks. Gene testing was performed before breaking the blind. Principal Observations:= 0.023, t = 2.803). Six participants had the short form of the 5HTTR, and it is believed they influenced the significant outcome in this small sample. Conclusions:While this is a very small sample, asenapine appears to have a beneficial effect on both depression and anxiety in depressed bipolar I patients compared to treatment with placebo. Due to the large fraction of subjects with the short form, the hypothesis that the SF-5HTTR might increase asenapine response could not be adequately tested.
Elevated Liver Enzymes as a Manifestation of Haff Disease [Case Report]
Ahmad, Surriya C; Sim, Christianna; Sinert, Richard
BACKGROUND:Haff disease is a rare syndrome of rhabdomyolysis thought to be caused by a heat-stable toxin associated with the consumption of seafood from fresh or brackish water. CASE REPORT/METHODS:We present the case of a patient with Haff disease who presented to the emergency department with nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgias after a seafood buffet. Initially, he was treated with i.v. fluids and antiemetics for presumed gastroenteritis, but his symptoms did not improve. He was found to have elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, normal point-of-care ultrasound, urinalysis with large blood and no red blood cells, and an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK). He was admitted to the hospital to receive ongoing fluid resuscitation for rhabdomyolysis presumed to be from fish. Liver enzymes and CPK downtrended, and patient was discharged on hospital dayÂ 3. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Undiagnosed Haff disease has important clinical implications, including multi-organ failure and death. Always maintain a high level of suspicion for Haff disease in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroenteritis, but complicated by minor liver function test elevations and dipstick positivity for heme, without significant numbers of red blood cells per high-power field, in the setting of recent seafood ingestion.
Crohn's disease in Caucasians and African Americans, as defined by clinical predictors and single nucleotide polymorphisms
Kanaan, Ziad; Ahmad, Surriya; Roberts, Henry; Thé, Tama; Girdler, Steven; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Weller, E Brooks; Galandiuk, Susan
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To compare three aspects of Crohn's disease (CD) between African Americans and Caucasians: (1) demographic data and environmental factors affecting CD susceptibility, (2) disease presentation and clinical course, and (3) genetic susceptibility via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility loci. METHODS:Clinical data and peripheral blood were obtained from 1032 patients (554 CD patients and 478 controls) derived from a clinically well-defined university-based medical and surgical digestive disease practice and included those who were diagnosed with IBD. Genomic DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and genotyping were performed for 11 SNPs, including the NOD2, IL-23r, OCTN 1, and the IGR gene variants. RESULTS:A total of 554 patients with CD were included in this study: 53 African Americans (10%), 485 Caucasians (87%), and 15 of other races (3%). The strongest demographic predictor of CD in African American patients was a family history of IBD. Ileocolic disease (L3) was the most common site involved in both African Americans and Caucasians, while the penetrating phenotype (B3) was the most common CD disease behavior in both races. Genotype association analysis showed a significant association between 2 IL23r gene SNPs and CD susceptibility in African Americans (p = .016 and .028, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We believe this study is the first to report on genotype-phenotype associations in African American CD patients and compare findings to Caucasian CD patients within the same geographic area. We found no association between NOD2 gene SNPs and CD susceptibility in African Americans patients (p > .05).
Clinical predictors of inflammatory bowel disease in a genetically well-defined Caucasian population
Kanaan, Ziad M; Eichenberger, Maurice R; Ahmad, Surriya; Weller, Clayton; Roberts, Henry; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Petras, Robert; Weller, E Brooks; Galandiuk, Susan
BACKGROUND:Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are multifactorial conditions of unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to examine the combined gene-environment interactions influencing IBD susceptibility in a well-defined Caucasian cohort in rural mid-America. METHODS:Patients were diagnosed to have CD or UC using conventional radiologic, endoscopic, and/or histopathologic findings. Histological diagnosis was made by a single specialist gastrointestinal pathologist with a particular interest in IBD. Information regarding cigarette smoke exposure was obtained by administration of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (BRFSS) to all patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and genotyping were performed for 11 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in NOD2, IL23r, OCTN1 genes along with IGR. RESULTS:Our cohort consists of 1196 patients: 435 controls, 485 CD patients, and 276 UC patients. Only patients with genotype data for at least 7 of 11 SNPs were included in our data analysis. The control groups for all 11 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. In genotype-association SNP analysis, all NOD2 SNPs (rs5743293, rs2066844, rs2066845) and the IL23r SNP (rs11465804) showed a significant association to IBD (p < 0.03). A multiple gene-interaction analysis showed an association between NOD2 and IL23r with UC (p = 0.04). There were no associations between any OCTN1 and IGR SNPs and IBD in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female gender, "current" or "former" smoking status, family history of IBD, and NOD2 SNP minor alleles were associated with CD. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:IBD remains to be challenging to properly diagnose, characterize, and treat. Our study proposes a combined genetic, phenotypic, and environmental approach in an attempt to better understand IBD. Previously demonstrated associations between OCTN1 and IGR and IBD were not confirmed.
Perianal Crohn's disease: predictive factors and genotype-phenotype correlations
Kanaan, Ziad; Ahmad, Surriya; Bilchuk, Natalia; Vahrenhold, Crystal; Pan, Jianmin; Galandiuk, Susan
AIM/OBJECTIVE:To investigate genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) in order to determine which factors predispose to development of perianal disease in Crohn's patients. METHODS:Seven-hundred and ninety-five Caucasian individuals (317 CD patients and 478 controls without inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) were prospectively enrolled into a clinical/genetic database. Demographic and clinical data, as well as peripheral blood leukocyte DNA were obtained from all patients. The following were evaluated: three NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms: R702W, G908R, and 1007insC; five IL-23r risk alleles: rs1004819, rs10489629, rs2201841, rs11465804, and rs11209026; a well-characterized single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the IBD5 risk haplotype (OCTN1) and two peripheral tag SNPs (IGR2060 and IGR3096). RESULTS:PCD occurred in 147 (46%) of CD patients. There was no significant difference in the age at disease diagnosis between non-PCD and PCD patients (33 vs. 29 years, respectively). PCD patients were more likely to have disease located in the colon and ileocolic regions (79 PCD vs. 57% non-PCD; n = 116 vs. n = 96; p < 0.001), whereas patients with non-PCD were more likely to have Crohn's within the terminal ileum and upper gastrointestinal tract (43% non-PCD vs. 21% PCD; n = 73 vs. n = 31; p < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of patients with PCD required a permanent ileostomy (n = 50) compared to only 4% of non-PCD patients (n = 6; p < 0.05). Mutations in CARD15/NOD2 and IL-23r were risk factors for CD overall; however, in contrast to prior reports, in this patient population, OCTN1 and IGR variations within the IBD5 haplotype were not significant predictors of PCD. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Colon/ileocolic CD location appears to be a significant predictor of perianal manifestations of CD. Patients with PCD are more likely to require permanent fecal diversion. We did not identify any genetic variations or combination of clinical findings and genetic variations within the CARD15/NOD2, IL-23r, and OCTN1 genes or IGR that were predictive of PCD.