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Correction to: Profiling Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Reveals a Molecular Basis for Vulnerability Within the Ts65Dn Model of Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

Alldred, Melissa J; Penikalapati, Sai C; Lee, Sang Han; Heguy, Adriana; Roussos, Panos; Ginsberg, Stephen D
PMID: 34837629
ISSN: 1559-1182
CID: 5063972

Expression and proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein is unaffected by the expression of the three human apolipoprotein E alleles in the brains of mice

Novy, Mariah J; Newbury, Samantha F; Liemisa, Braison; Morales-Corraliza, Jose; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M
The 3 human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene alleles modify an individual's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD): compared to the risk-neutral APOE ε3 allele, the ε4 allele (APOE4) is strongly associated with increased AD risk while the ε2 allele is protective. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to link APOE4 expression and AD risk, including the possibility that APOE4 increases the expression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) (Y-W.A. Huang, B. Zhou, A.M. Nabet, M. Wernig, T.C. Südhof, 2019). In this study, we investigated the impact of APOE genotype on the expression, and proteolytic processing of endogenously expressed APP in the brains of mice humanized for the 3 APOE alleles. In contrast to prior studies using neuronal cultures, we found in the brain that both App gene expression, and the levels of APP holoprotein were not affected by APOE genotype. Additionally, our analysis of APP fragments showed that APOE genotype does not impact APP processing in the brain: the levels of both α- and β-cleaved soluble APP fragments (sAPPs) were similar across genotypes, as were the levels of the membrane-associated α- and β-cleaved C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of APP. Lastly, APOE genotype did not impact the level of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ). These findings argue that the APOE-allele-dependent AD risk is independent of the brain expression and processing of APP.
PMID: 34875506
ISSN: 1558-1497
CID: 5099572

Profiling Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Reveals a Molecular Basis for Vulnerability Within the Ts65Dn Model of Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

Alldred, Melissa J; Penikalapati, Sai C; Lee, Sang Han; Heguy, Adriana; Roussos, Panos; Ginsberg, Stephen D
Basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration is a hallmark of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current therapeutics have been unsuccessful in slowing disease progression, likely due to complex pathological interactions and dysregulated pathways that are poorly understood. The Ts65Dn trisomic mouse model recapitulates both cognitive and morphological deficits of DS and AD, including BFCN degeneration. We utilized Ts65Dn mice to understand mechanisms underlying BFCN degeneration to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We performed high-throughput, single population RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to interrogate transcriptomic changes within medial septal nucleus (MSN) BFCNs, using laser capture microdissection to individually isolate ~500 choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in Ts65Dn and normal disomic (2N) mice at 6 months of age (MO). Ts65Dn mice had unique MSN BFCN transcriptomic profiles at ~6 MO clearly differentiating them from 2N mice. Leveraging Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and KEGG analysis, we linked differentially expressed gene (DEG) changes within MSN BFCNs to several canonical pathways and aberrant physiological functions. The dysregulated transcriptomic profile of trisomic BFCNs provides key information underscoring selective vulnerability within the septohippocampal circuit. We propose both expected and novel therapeutic targets for DS and AD, including specific DEGs within cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic, and neurotrophin pathways, as well as select targets for repairing oxidative phosphorylation status in neurons. We demonstrate and validate this interrogative quantitative bioinformatic analysis of a key dysregulated neuronal population linking single population transcript changes to an established pathological hallmark associated with cognitive decline for therapeutic development in human DS and AD.
PMID: 34263425
ISSN: 1559-1182
CID: 4937542

Adiponectin Modulation by Genotype and Maternal Choline Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

Alldred, Melissa J; Lee, Sang Han; Ginsberg, Stephen D
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21, which results in neurological and physiological pathologies. These deficits increase during aging and are exacerbated by cognitive decline and increase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. A nontoxic, noninvasive treatment, maternal choline supplementation (MCS) attenuates cognitive decline in mouse models of DS and AD. To evaluate potential underlying mechanisms, laser capture microdissection of individual neuronal populations of MCS offspring was performed, followed by RNA sequencing and bioinformatic inquiry. Results at ~6 months of age (MO) revealed DS mice (the well-established Ts65Dn model) have significant dysregulation of select genes within the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) signaling pathway relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Accordingly, we interrogated key T2DM protein hormones by ELISA assay in addition to gene and encoded protein levels in the brain. We found dysregulation of adiponectin (APN) protein levels in the frontal cortex of ~6 MO trisomic mice, which was attenuated by MCS. APN receptors also displayed expression level changes in response to MCS. APN is a potential biomarker for AD pathology and may be relevant in DS. We posit that changes in APN signaling may be an early marker of cognitive decline and neurodegeneration.
PMID: 34279477
ISSN: 2077-0383
CID: 4947912

Mitovesicles are a novel population of extracellular vesicles of mitochondrial origin altered in Down syndrome

D'Acunzo, Pasquale; Pérez-González, Rocío; Kim, Yohan; Hargash, Tal; Miller, Chelsea; Alldred, Melissa J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Penikalapati, Sai C; Pawlik, Monika; Saito, Mitsuo; Saito, Mariko; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Neubert, Thomas A; Goulbourne, Chris N; Levy, Efrat
Mitochondrial dysfunction is an established hallmark of aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a high-resolution density gradient separation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from murine and human DS and diploid control brains, we identify and characterize a previously unknown population of double-membraned EVs containing multiple mitochondrial proteins distinct from previously described EV subtypes, including microvesicles and exosomes. We term these newly identified mitochondria-derived EVs "mitovesicles." We demonstrate that brain-derived mitovesicles contain a specific subset of mitochondrial constituents and that their levels and cargo are altered during pathophysiological processes where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs, including in DS. The development of a method for the selective isolation of mitovesicles paves the way for the characterization in vivo of biological processes connecting EV biology and mitochondria dynamics and for innovative therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.
PMID: 33579698
ISSN: 2375-2548
CID: 4786222

Oxidative Phosphorylation Is Dysregulated Within the Basocortical Circuit in a 6-month old Mouse Model of Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

Alldred, Melissa J; Lee, Sang Han; Stutzmann, Grace E; Ginsberg, Stephen D
Down syndrome (DS) is the primary genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID), which is due to the triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). In addition to ID, HSA21 trisomy results in a number of neurological and physiological pathologies in individuals with DS, including progressive cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits which worsen with age. Further exacerbating neurological dysfunction associated with DS is the concomitant basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration and onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in early mid-life. Recent single population RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, specifically the medial septal cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), revealed the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway was significantly impacted, with a large subset of genes within this pathway being downregulated. We further queried oxidative phosphorylation pathway dysregulation in Ts65Dn mice by examining genes and encoded proteins within brain regions comprising the basocortical system at the start of BFCN degeneration (6 months of age). In select Ts65Dn mice we demonstrate significant deficits in gene and/or encoded protein levels of Complex I-V of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway in the BF. In the frontal cortex (Fr Ctx) these complexes had concomitant alterations in select gene expression but not of the proteins queried from Complex I-V, suggesting that defects at this time point in the BF are more severe and occur prior to cortical dysfunction within the basocortical circuit. We propose dysregulation within mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes is an early marker of cognitive decline onset and specifically linked to BFCN degeneration that may propagate pathology throughout cortical memory and executive function circuits in DS and AD.
PMID: 34489678
ISSN: 1663-4365
CID: 5067122

Fixation protocols for neurohistology: neurons to genes

Mufson, E J; Perez, S E; Kelley, C M; Alldred, M J; Ginsberg, S D
Since ancient times, tissue fixation for neurohistology has been an evolving area of research. Alcohol fixation first made possible examination of brain tissue specimens. In the late 1800s formaldehyde was introduced as a cross-linking fixative, which enabled histological advances. Various aldehyde solutions remain the staple for neurohistology in the neuroscience community including formalin, paraformaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and combinations of these fixatives. A 4% paraformaldehyde solution is commonly used for numerous cytochemical procedures including tract tracing, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. A glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution is the fixative of choice for ultrastructural investigations using the electron microscope. With the advent of modern molecular and cellular biological techniques, it is now possible to isolate and study genomic DNA, RNA species, and proteins from microdissected tissue sources. Similar to light and electron microscopy, alcohol and aldehyde tissue fixation are compatible with preserving RNA integrity for regional and single cell gene array experiments using immersion- and perfusion-fixed tissue from a myriad of brain tissue sources including humans and relevant animal and cellular models.
ISSN: 1940-6045
CID: 4571842

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB hippocampal gene expression are putative predictors of neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology

Ginsberg, Stephen D; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael H; Alldred, Melissa J; Chen, Yinghua; Chen, Kewei; Chao, Moses V; Counts, Scott E; Mufson, Elliott J
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate neurotrophin receptor, TrkB, were observed during the progression of dementia, but whether the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological lesions diffuse plaques, (DPs), neuritic plaques (NPs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are related to this alteration remains to be clarified. METHODS:Negative binomial (NB) regressions were performed using gene expression data accrued from a single population of CA1 pyramidal neurons and regional hippocampal dissections obtained from participants in the Rush Religious Orders Study (RROS). RESULTS:Downregulation of Bdnf is independently associated with increased entorhinal cortex NPs. Downregulation of TrkB is independently associated with increased entorhinal cortex NFTs and CA1 NPs during the progression of AD. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Results indicate that BDNF and TrkB dysregulation contribute to AD neuropathology, most notably hippocampal NPs and NFTs. These data suggest attenuating BDNF/TrkB signaling deficits either at the level of BDNF, TrkB, or downstream of TrkB signaling may abrogate NPs and/or NFTs.
PMID: 31349032
ISSN: 1095-953x
CID: 3988372

Maternal choline supplementation alters basal forebrain cholinergic neuron gene expression in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

Kelley, Christy M; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Alldred, Melissa J; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J
Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is marked by intellectual disability and a premature aging profile including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) projection system, similar to what is seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although data indicate that perinatal maternal choline supplementation (MCS) alters the structure and function of these neurons in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD (Ts), how MCS affects the molecular profile of vulnerable BFCNs is unknown. We investigated the genetic signature of BFCNs obtained from Ts and disomic (2N) offspring of Ts65Dn dams maintained on a MCS diet (Ts+, 2N+) or a choline-normal diet (ND) from mating until weaning, then maintained on ND until 4.4-7.5 months of age. Brains were then collected and prepared for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry and laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and custom-designed microarray analysis. Findings revealed upregulation of select transcripts in classes of genes related to the cytoskeleton (Tubb4b), AD (Cav1), cell death (Bcl2), presynaptic (Syngr1), immediate early (Fosb, Arc), G protein signaling (Gabarap, Rgs10), and cholinergic neurotransmission (Chrnb3) in Ts compared to 2N mice, which were normalized with MCS. Moreover, significant downregulation was seen in select transcripts associated with the cytoskeleton (Dync1h1), intracellular signaling (Itpka, Gng3, Mlst8), and cell death (Ccng1) in Ts compared to 2N mice that were normalized with MCS. This study provides valuable insight into mechanisms of genotype-dependent differences and the effects of MCS at the molecular level within a key vulnerable cell type in DS and AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 31120189
ISSN: 1932-846x
CID: 3920842

Long-term effects of maternal choline supplementation on CA1 pyramidal neuron gene expression in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease

Alldred, Melissa J; Chao, Helen M; Lee, Sang Han; Beilin, Judah; Powers, Brian E; Petkova, Eva; Strupp, Barbara J; Ginsberg, Stephen D
Choline is critical for normative function of 3 major pathways in the brain, including acetylcholine biosynthesis, being a key mediator of epigenetic regulation, and serving as the primary substrate for the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway. Sufficient intake of dietary choline is critical for proper brain function and neurodevelopment. This is especially important for brain development during the perinatal period. Current dietary recommendations for choline intake were undertaken without critical evaluation of maternal choline levels. As such, recommended levels may be insufficient for both mother and fetus. Herein, we examined the impact of perinatal maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in a mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, the Ts65Dn mouse relative to normal disomic littermates, to examine the effects on gene expression within adult offspring at ∼6 and 11 mo of age. We found MCS produces significant changes in offspring gene expression levels that supersede age-related and genotypic gene expression changes. Alterations due to MCS impact every gene ontology category queried, including GABAergic neurotransmission, the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and autophagy, and neurotrophins, highlighting the importance of proper choline intake during the perinatal period, especially when the fetus is known to have a neurodevelopmental disorder such as trisomy.-Alldred, M. J., Chao, H. M., Lee, S. H., Beilin, J., Powers, B. E., Petkova, E., Strupp, B. J., Ginsberg, S. D. Long-term effects of maternal choline supplementation on CA1 pyramidal neuron gene expression in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.
PMID: 31180719
ISSN: 1530-6860
CID: 3929822