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The memory assessment clinics scale for epilepsy (MAC-E): A brief measure of subjective cognitive complaints in epilepsy

Miller, Margaret; Honomichl, Ryan; Lapin, Brittany; Hogan, Thomas; Thompson, Nicholas; Barr, William B; Friedman, Daniel; Sieg, Erica; Schuele, Stephan; Kurtish, Selin Yagci; Özkara, Cigdem; Lin, Katia; Wiebe, Samuel; Jehi, Lara; Busch, Robyn M
PMID: 33106081
ISSN: 1744-4144
CID: 5287482

Handedness and Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis: Potential Indications for Hemispheric Vulnerability

Miller, Jennifer R; Altaras, Caroline; Zemon, Vance; Barr, William B; Weinberger, Andrea H; Foley, Frederick W
BACKGROUND:Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects over 2.5 million individuals worldwide, yet much of the disease course is unknown. Hemispheric vulnerability in MS may elucidate part of this process but has not yet been studied. The current study assessed neuropsychological functioning as it relates to hemispheric vulnerability in MS. METHODS:Verbal IQ, as measured by verbal comprehension index (VCI), nonverbal IQ, as measured by perceptual reasoning index (PRI) and memory acquisition were compared in right-handed (dextral) and non-right-handed (non-dextral) persons with MS (PwMS). RESULTS:Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated a significant main effect of handedness, F(1, 195.35) = 3.95, p = .048, for a composite measure of VCI, PRI, and memory acquisition, with better performance for dextral PwMS. In examining differences for specific neuropsychological measures, the largest effect size between dextral and non-dextral participants was seen in PRI (d = 0.643), F(1,341) = 12.163, p = .001. No significant interaction effect between handedness and IQ was found, F(3, 525.60) = 0.75, p = .523. CONCLUSIONS:Dextral PwMS perform better than non-dextral PwMS when assessing neuropsychological performance for memory and IQ combined. Results are suggestive of increased vulnerability in the left brain to the pathological process of MS.
PMID: 35284930
ISSN: 1873-5843
CID: 5183752

Cognitive phenotypes in frontal lobe epilepsy

Arrotta, Kayela; Reyes, Anny; Kaestner, Erik; McDonald, Carrie R; Hermann, Bruce P; Barr, William B; Sarmey, Nehaw; Sundar, Swetha; Kondylis, Efstathios; Najm, Imad; Bingaman, William; Busch, Robyn M
OBJECTIVE:Neuropsychological profiles are heterogeneous both across and within epilepsy syndromes, but especially in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), which has complex semiology and epileptogenicity. This study aimed to characterize the cognitive heterogeneity within FLE by identifying cognitive phenotypes and determining their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHOD/METHODS:One hundred and six patients (age 16-66; 44% female) with FLE completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including measures within five cognitive domains: language, attention, executive function, processing speed, and verbal/visual learning. Patients were categorized into one of four phenotypes based on the number of impaired domains. Patterns of domain impairment and clinical and demographic characteristics were examined across phenotypes. RESULTS:Twenty-five percent of patients met criteria for the Generalized Phenotype (impairment in at least four domains), 20% met criteria for the Tri-Domain Phenotype (impairment in three domains), 36% met criteria for the Domain-Specific Phenotype (impairment in one or two domains), and 19% met criteria for the Intact Phenotype (no impairment). Language was the most common domain-specific impairment, followed by attention, executive function, and processing speed. In contrast, learning was the least impacted cognitive domain. The Generalized Phenotype had fewer years of education compared to the Intact Phenotype, but otherwise, there was no differentiation between phenotypes in demographic and clinical variables. However, qualitative analysis suggested that the Generalized and Tri-Domain Phenotypes had a more widespread area of epileptogenicity, whereas the Intact Phenotype most frequently had seizures limited to the lateral frontal region. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This study identified four cognitive phenotypes in FLE that were largely indistinguishable in clinical and demographic features, aside from education and extent of epileptogenic zone. These findings enhance our appreciation of the cognitive heterogeneity within FLE and provide additional support for the development and use of cognitive taxonomies in epilepsy.
PMID: 35429174
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 5219182

Potential of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Alzheimer's Disease: Optimizing Trials Toward Clinical Use

Pilloni, Giuseppina; Charvet, Leigh E; Bikson, Marom; Palekar, Nikhil; Kim, Min-Jeong
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe and well-tolerated noninvasive method for stimulating the brain that is rapidly developing into a treatment method for various neurological and psychiatric conditions. In particular, there is growing evidence of a therapeutic role for tDCS in ameliorating or delaying the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We provide a brief overview of the current development and application status of tDCS as a nonpharmacological therapeutic method for AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), summarize the levels of evidence, and identify the improvements needed for clinical applications. We also suggest future directions for large-scale controlled clinical trials of tDCS in AD and MCI, and emphasize the necessity of identifying the mechanistic targets to facilitate clinical applications.
PMID: 35796264
ISSN: 1738-6586
CID: 5280512

Investigating the association between subjective and objective performance-based cognitive function among former collegiate football players

Bryant, Andrew M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Walton, Samuel R; Barr, William B; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; McCrea, Michael A; Brett, Benjamin L
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Studies have observed variable associations of prior contact sport participation with subjective and objective measures of cognitive function. This study directly investigated the association between subjective self-report and objective performance-based cognition among former collegiate football players, as well as its relationship to self-reported concussion history. METHODS/UNASSIGNED: = 1.49]) retired from sport 15-years prior were enrolled. Linear regression models examined associations between subjective cognition (Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Cognitive Functioning-Short Form), and performance on a neuropsychological battery. Domain specific (executive function) metrics of subjective (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult) and objective cognition were also exclusively examined. Associations between self-reported concussion history with subjective and objective measures were tested. Potential influential factors (sleep quality and distress) were included as covariates. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .033). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Reliance on self-reported measures of cognitive functioning alone is insufficient when assessing cognition in former contact sport athletes. Assessment of other factors known to influence subjective cognitive complaints should also be examined in determining the presence of cognitive deficits.
PMID: 35670306
ISSN: 1744-4144
CID: 5283112

Tolerability and feasibility of at-home remotely supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (RS-tDCS): Single-center evidence from 6,779 sessions

Pilloni, Giuseppina; Vogel-Eyny, Amy; Lustberg, Matthew; Best, Pamela; Malik, Martin; Walton-Masters, Lillian; George, Allan; Mirza, Ibraheem; Zhovtis, Lana; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Krupp, Lauren; Charvet, Leigh
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The ability to deploy transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at home is a key usability advantage to support scaling for pivotal clinical trials. We have established a home-based tDCS protocol for use in clinical trials termed remotely supervised (RS)-tDCS. OBJECTIVE:To report the tolerability and feasibility of tDCS sessions completed to date using RS-tDCS in clinical trials. METHODS:We analyzed tolerability (i.e., adverse events, AEs) reported in six Class I/II/III trials using RS-tDCS to study symptom outcomes over 10 to 60 daily applications. Across the six clinical trials, 308 participants (18-78 years old) completed an average of 23 sessions for a total of 6779 RS-tDCS administrations. The majority of participants were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, and open-label trials included those diagnosed with a range of other conditions (e.g., Parkinson's disease, post-stroke aphasia, traumatic brain injury, cerebellar ataxia), with minimum-to-severe neurologic disability. Clinical trial feasibility (i.e., treatment fidelity and blinding integrity) was examined using two Class I randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS:No serious AEs occurred. Across administrations, three sessions (0.04%) were aborted due to discomfort, but no participant discontinued due to tolerability. The AEs most commonly reported by participants were tingling (68%), itching (41%) and warmth sensation (42%) at the electrode site, and these were equally reported in active and sham tDCS conditions. The two Class I RCTs resulted in rapid enrollment, high fidelity to treatment completion, and blinding integrity. CONCLUSIONS:At-home RS-tDCS is tolerable, including when used over extended periods of time. Home-based RS-tDCS is feasible and can enable Class I tDCS clinical trial designs.
PMID: 35470019
ISSN: 1876-4754
CID: 5217352

Risk of COVID-19 infection and severe disease in MS patients on different disease-modifying therapies

Smith, Tyler E; Madhavan, Maya; Gratch, Daniel; Patel, Aneek; Saha, Valerie; Sammarco, Carrie; Rimler, Zoe; Zuniga, Guadalupe; Gragui, Dunia; Charvet, Leigh; Cutter, Gary; Krupp, Lauren; Kister, Ilya; Ryerson, Lana Zhovtis
BACKGROUND:The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity with disease modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, with some studies demonstrating increased risks of infection with B-cell-depleting (anti-CD20) therapies and severity, while others fail to observe an association. Most existing studies are limited by a reliance on 'numerator' data (i.e., COVID-19 cases) only. OBJECTIVE:To assess the risks of COVID-19 by DMT, this study aimed to assess both 'numerator' (patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection) and 'denominator' data (all patients treated with DMTs of interest) to determine if any DMTs impart an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease severity. METHODS:We systematically reviewed charts and queried patients during clinic encounters in the NYU MS Comprehensive Care Center (MSCCC) for evidence of COVID-19 in all patients who were on the most commonly used DMTs in our clinic (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators (fingolimod/siponimod), rituximab, ocrelizumab, fumarates (dimethyl fumarate/diroximel fumarate), and natalizumab). COVID-19 status was determined by clinical symptoms (CDC case definition) and laboratory testing where available (SARS-CoV-2 PCR, SARS-CoV-2 IgG). Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine predictors of infection and severe disease (hospitalization or death) using SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals per DMT group and all individuals on a given DMT as denominator. RESULTS:We identified 1,439 MS patients on DMTs of interest, of which 230 had lab-confirmed (n = 173; 75.2%) or suspected (n = 57; 24.8%) COVID-19. Infection was most frequent in those on rituximab (35/138; 25.4%), followed by fumarates (39/217; 18.0%), S1P modulators (43/250; 17.2%), natalizumab (36/245; 14.7%), and ocrelizumab (77/589; 13.1%). There were 14 hospitalizations and 2 deaths. No DMT was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rituximab was a predictor of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 6.7; 95% CI 1.1-41.7) but did not reach statistical significance when the entire patient population on DMT was used (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.6-12.2). No other DMT was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Analysis of COVID-19 risk among all patients on the commonly used DMTs did not demonstrate increased risk of infection with any DMT. Rituximab was associated with increased risk for severe disease.
PMID: 35398713
ISSN: 2211-0356
CID: 5191752

Factors supporting availability of home-based Neuromodulation using remote supervision in middle-income countries; Brazil experience [Letter]

Silva-Filho, Edson; Pilloni, Giuseppina; Charvet, Leigh E; Fregni, Felipe; Brunoni, André R; Bikson, Marom
PMID: 35181531
ISSN: 1876-4754
CID: 5163722

A novel disease specific scale to characterize the symptoms and impacts of fatigue in US adults with relapsing multiple sclerosis: A real-world study

Azoulai, Marion; Lévy-Heidmann, Tiphaine; Morisseau, Valentin; Wilczynski, Ophélie; Le, Hoa H; Jamieson, Carol; Charvet, Leigh E; Krupp, Lauren B; Lair, Lindsey
BACKGROUND:Fatigue is among the most frequent and disabling symptoms in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). OBJECTIVE:To measure MS fatigue and its impact on daily life in a real-world US population using an MS-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the Fatigue Symptoms and Impacts Questionnaire-RMS (FSIQ-RMS). METHODS:This ongoing prospective study recruited RMS patients from an online patient community (Carenity) across US. Baseline assessment data are reported. Participants completed questionnaires, including the 20-item FSIQ-RMS questionnaire, with the first seven symptom-related items collected daily for seven days, and the other 13 items on the seventh day assessing impacts of fatigue. The FSIQ-RMS scores range from 0 to 100 (higher score=greater severity). The impact of fatigue on several aspects of patients' lives was rated from 0 (no impact) to 10 (very high impact). Data on disease history, disease status, sleep, social and emotional functioning were also captured. Baseline assessment data of 300 RMS patients are reported while follow-up assessments up to 18 months are planned. RESULTS:300 RMS participants completed the 7-day assessment (mean age 43.0 years, 88% women). Fatigue was rated as severe, with a mean score of 57.3 for the FSIQ-RMS symptom domain; 3 impact sub-domain scores were 42.3, 43.4 and 50.1 (physical, cognitive/emotional, and coping). Participants who were not in relapse (78%) reported less severe fatigue than those in relapse (22%): mean±SD symptom score of 54.6 ± 17.8 vs. 67.0 ± 19.7, p< 0.001. Fatigue had a higher intensity among those with depression than without (49% vs. 51%, with mean ± SD symptom score of 62.8 ± 16.9 vs. 52.1 ± 19.3, p< 0.001), and among those with sleep disorder than without (27% vs. 73%, 61.2 ± 19.2 vs. 55.9 ± 18.6; p< 0.05). The most common factor associated with increased fatigue was heat exposure (82%). Most participants (52%) reported experiencing fatigue before their MS diagnosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Fatigue influences daily functioning for most patients with RMS. The FSIQ-RMS is a novel and MS-specific PRO measure that can advance the understanding and management of fatigue.
PMID: 35168093
ISSN: 2211-0356
CID: 5158702

Development and application of the International Classification of Cognitive Disorders in Epilepsy (IC-CoDE): Initial results from a multi-center study of adults with temporal lobe epilepsy

McDonald, Carrie R; Busch, Robyn M; Reyes, Anny; Arrotta, Kayela; Barr, William; Block, Cady; Hessen, Erik; Loring, David W; Drane, Daniel L; Hamberger, Marla J; Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Hermann, Bruce P
OBJECTIVE:and to assess the ability of the IC-CoDE to produce definable and stable cognitive phenotypes in a large, multi-center temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patient sample. METHOD/METHODS:were derived across samples using the IC-CoDE and compared to distributions of phenotypes reported in existing studies. RESULTS:Impairment rates were highest on tests of language, followed by memory, executive functioning, attention/processing speed, and visuospatial ability. Application of the IC-CoDE using varying operational definitions of impairment (≤ 1.0 and ≤ 1.5 SD) produced cognitive phenotypes with the following distribution: cognitively intact (30%-50%), single-domain (26%-29%), bi-domain (14%-19%), and generalized (10%-22%) impairment. Application of the ≤ 1.5 cutoff produced a distribution of phenotypes that was consistent across cohorts and approximated the distribution produced using data-driven approaches in prior studies. CONCLUSIONS:The IC-CoDE is the first iteration of a classification system for harmonizing cognitive diagnostics in epilepsy research that can be applied across neuropsychological tests and TLE cohorts. This proof-of-principle study in TLE offers a promising path for enhancing research collaborations globally and accelerating scientific discoveries in epilepsy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 35084879
ISSN: 1931-1559
CID: 5171882