Preoperative MRI and LDH in women undergoing intra-abdominal surgery for fibroids: Effect on surgical route
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Our institution implemented a preoperative protocol to identify high-risk cases for which power morcellation should be avoided. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, an institutional protocol requiring preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and serum Lactate Dehydrogenase levels was implemented. Chart review was performed including all women who underwent intra-abdominal surgery for symptomatic fibroids from 4/23/2013 to 4/23/2015. RESULTS:A total of 1,085 women were included, 479 before and 606 after implementation of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging / Lactate Dehydrogenase protocol. The pre-protocol group had more post-menopausal women (4% vs. 2%, p = 0.022) and women using tamoxifen (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.022) than those in the post-protocol group, but baseline patient characteristics were otherwise similar between groups. Incidence of malignant pathological diagnoses did not change significantly over the time period in relation to protocol implementation. The rate of open surgery for both hysterectomy and myomectomy remained the same in the year preceding and the year following initiation of the protocol (open hysterectomy rate was 19% vs. 16% in pre- and post-protocol groups, respectively, P = 0.463, and open myomectomy rate was 10% vs. 9% rates in pre- and post-protocol groups, respectively, P = 0.776). There was a significant decrease in the use of power morcellation (66% in pre- and 50% in post-protocol cohorts, p<0.001) and an increased use of containment bags (1% in pre- and 19% in post-protocol cohort). When analyzing the subset of women who had abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging / and Lactate Dehydrogenase results, abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging results alone resulted in higher rates of open approach (65% for abnormal vs. 35% for normal). Similarly, a combination of abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Lactate Dehydrogenase tests resulted in higher rates of open approach (70% for abnormal and 17% for normal). Abnormal Lactate Dehydrogenase results alone did not influence route. CONCLUSIONS:Rates of MIS procedures were decreased for women with abnormal preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging results. False positive results appear to be one of the main drivers for the use of an open surgical route.
30: Preoperative evaluation with MRI and LDH testing in patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery for fibroids: Effect on surgical route [Meeting Abstract]
Objectives: The use of power morcellation has been restricted in many centers due to concerns for inadvertent spread of an undiagnosed leiomyosarcoma. Our institution implemented a preoperative protocol to avoid power morcellation in high risk cases. In this retrospective cohort study, we report the impact of this protocol on institutional surgical practice patterns, and the influence of MRI and LDH results on surgical route.
Material(s) and Method(s): An institutional protocol requiring preoperative MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging and serum LDH levels was implemented on 4/23/2014 at a single academic hospital. A retrospective chart review was performed including all women who underwent intra-abdominal surgery for symptomatic fibroids from 4/23/2013 to 4/23/2015. Statistical analyses included univariate comparisons between the cohorts pre- and post-protocol, as well as overall adherence to protocol, trends in surgical patterns, and incidence of uterine pathology.
Result(s): A total of 1085 patients were included, 479 before and 606 after implementation of the MRI/LDH protocol. The pre-protocol group had more post-menopausal women (4% vs. 2%, p=0.022) and women using tamoxifen (2% vs. 0%, p=0.022) than those in the post-protocol group, but baseline patient characteristics were otherwise similar between groups. Incidence of malignant pathological diagnoses did not change significantly over the time period in relation to protocol implementation. The rate of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for both hysterectomy and myomectomy remained the same in the year preceding and the year following initiation of the protocol (81% vs. 84% and 90% vs. 91%, respectively). There was a significant decrease in the use of power morcellation (66% in pre- and 50% in post-protocol cohorts, p<0.001) and an increased use of containment bags when specimens were removed abdominally (1% in pre- and 19% in post-protocol cohort). When analyzing the subset of patients who had abnormal MRI and LDH results, abnormal MRI results alone resulted in higher rates of open approach (65% for abnormal vs. 35% for normal). Similarly, a combination of abnormal MRI and LDH tests resulted in higher rates of open approach (70% for abnormal and 17% for normal). Abnormal LDH results alone did not influence route.
Conclusion(s): Though earlier studies have suggested an overall decrease in minimally invasive hysterectomies in response to the FDA warning on power morcellation, there was no change in rates of minimally invasive hysterectomies and myomectomies at our institution during a similar time period. Changes in surgical techniques, such as decreased use of power morcellation and increased use of contained tissue extraction, were seen. Decreased rates of MIS were seen for patients with abnormal preoperative MRI.
Interreader Concordance of the TI-RADS: Impact of Radiologist Experience
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this article is to assess radiologist concordance in characterizing thyroid nodules using the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS), focusing on the effect of radiologist experience on reader concordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three experienced and three less experienced radiologists assessed 150 thyroid nodules using the TI-RADS lexicon. Percent concordance was determined for various endpoints. RESULTS. Interreader concordance for the five TI-RADS categories was 87.2% for shape, 81.2% for composition, 76.1% for echogenicity, 72.9% for margins, and 69.8% for echogenic foci. Concordance for individual features was 96.3% for rim calcifications, 90.8% for macrocalcifications, 90.1% for spongiform, 83.5% for comet tail artifact, and 77.7% for punctate echogenic foci. Concordance for the TI-RADS level and recommendation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) were 50.4% and 78.9%, respectively. Concordance was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for less experienced readers in identifying margins (84.3% vs 67.4%), echogenic foci (76.9% vs 69.3%), comet tail artifact (89.6% vs 79.2%), and punctate echogenic foci (85.3% vs 75.5%), and lower for peripheral rim calcifications (95.0% vs 97.8 %), but was not different (p > 0.05) for the remaining categories and features. CONCLUSION. A range of TI-RADS categories, features, and recommendations for FNA had generally moderate interreader agreement among six radiologists. Our results show that concordance for numerous characteristics was significantly higher for the less experienced versus the more experienced readers. These results suggest that less experienced readers relied more on the explicit TI-RADS criteria, whereas the experienced radiologists partially relied on their accumulated experience when forming impressions. However, the overall TI-RADS level and recommendation for FNA were unaffected, supporting the robustness of the TI-RADS lexicon and its continued use in practice.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Rule out Leiomyosarcoma in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Leiomyomas: A Real World Experience in an Unenhanced Patient Population
Objective: Surgery for leiomyomas is common; yet, no reliable test can help distinguish a benign leiomyoma and malignant leiomyosarcoma (LMS).
Material(s) and Method(s): This retrospective observational cohort study evaluated patients before and after implementation of a protocol to identify LMS, which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging.
Result(s): This study revealed the incidence of uterine pathology, as well as MRI, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and pathology results, in 1085 patients - 479 before and 606 after implementation of the protocol. Two cases of LMS were identified in the postprotocol cohort, and 70% of the patients underwent MRI. Test statistics for MRI to detect LMS in this cohort were: sensitivity of 100%; specificity of 67%; positive predictive value of 1%; negative predictive value of 100%; false-positive rate of 33%; and false-negative rate of 0%. For patients with both MRI and LDH results (358/606, 59%), 56.7% had normal MRI and LDH, 9.8% had negative MRI but high LDH, 6.4% had abnormal MRI and high LDH, and 27.1% had abnormal MRI and normal LDH.
Conclusion(s): Preoperative MRI for detecting LMS had high a sensitivity and a high false-positive rate, which warrants caution in interpreting MRI results, particularly in women of childbearing age.
O-RADS US Risk Stratification and Management System: A Consensus Guideline from the ACR Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Committee
The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS) US risk stratification and management system is designed to provide consistent interpretations, to decrease or eliminate ambiguity in US reports resulting in a higher probability of accuracy in assigning risk of malignancy to ovarian and other adnexal masses, and to provide a management recommendation for each risk category. It was developed by an international multidisciplinary committee sponsored by the American College of Radiology and applies the standardized reporting tool for US based on the 2018 published lexicon of the O-RADS US working group. For risk stratification, the O-RADS US system recommends six categories (O-RADS 0-5), incorporating the range of normal to high risk of malignancy. This unique system represents a collaboration between the pattern-based approach commonly used in North America and the widely used, European-based, algorithmic-style International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) Assessment of Different Neoplasias in the Adnexa model system, a risk prediction model that has undergone successful prospective and external validation. The pattern approach relies on a subgroup of the most predictive descriptors in the lexicon based on a retrospective review of evidence prospectively obtained in the IOTA phase 1-3 prospective studies and other supporting studies that assist in differentiating management schemes in a variety of almost certainly benign lesions. With O-RADS US working group consensus, guidelines for management in the different risk categories are proposed. Both systems have been stratified to reach the same risk categories and management strategies regardless of which is initially used. At this time, O-RADS US is the only lexicon and classification system that encompasses all risk categories with their associated management schemes.
Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting Lexicon for Ultrasound: A White Paper of the ACR Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Committee
Ultrasound is the most commonly used imaging technique for the evaluation of ovarian and other adnexal lesions. The interpretation of sonographic findings is variable because of inconsistency in descriptor terminology used among reporting clinicians. The use of vague termsÂ that are inconsistently applied can lead to significant differences in interpretation and subsequent management strategies. A committee was formed under the direction of the ACR initially to create a standardized lexicon for ovarian lesions with the goal of improving the quality and communication of imaging reports between ultrasound examiners and referring clinicians. The ultimate objective will be to apply theÂ lexicon to a risk stratification classification for consistent follow-up and management in clinical practice. This white paper describesÂ theÂ consensus process in the creation of a standardized lexicon for ovarian and adnexal lesions and the resultant lexicon.
Pitfalls and tips in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy
Women of reproductive age with pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and a positive pregnancy test often require evaluation with pelvic ultrasound. In these situations, the primary role of pelvic ultrasound is to differentiate an ectopic pregnancy from either a normal or abnormal intrauterine pregnancy. While an accurately performed and interpreted pelvic ultrasound results in rapid diagnosis and management, numerous diagnostic pitfalls can lead to negative outcomes. Therefore, familiarity with the appropriate laboratory tests, sonographic technique, and imaging features of ectopic pregnancy is essential for all radiologists. We present a review of ectopic pregnancy cases from our institution with attention to common pitfalls and troubleshooting tips for physicians who perform and interpret pelvic ultrasounds. We also present recently published literature to aid in the management of first trimester pregnancy.
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Improving Appropriate Follow-Up Imaging of Ovarian Cysts: A Quality Improvement Initiative
PURPOSE: Incidental ovarian cysts are frequently detected on imaging. Despite published follow-up consensus statements, there remains variability in radiologist follow-up recommendations and clinician practice patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate if collaborative ovarian cyst management recommendations and a radiologist decision support tool can improve adherence to follow-up recommendations. METHODS: Gynecologic oncologists and abdominal radiologists convened to develop collaborative institutional recommendations for the management of incidental, asymptomatic simple ovarian cysts detected on ultrasound, CT, and MRI. The recommendations were developed by modifying the published consensus recommendations developed by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound on the basis of local practice patterns and the experience of the group members. A less formal process involved the circulation of the published consensus recommendations, followed by suggestions for revisions and subsequent consensus, in similar fashion to the ACR Incidental Findings Committee II. The recommendations were developed by building on the published work of experienced groups to provide the authors' medical community with a set of recommendations that could be endorsed by both the Department of Gynecology and the Department of Radiology to provide supportive guidance to the clinicians who manage incidental ovarian cysts. The recommendations were integrated into a radiologist decision support tool accessible from the dictation software. Nine months after tool launch, institutional review board approval was obtained, and radiology reports mentioning ovarian cysts in the prior 34 months were retrospectively reviewed. For cysts detected on ultrasound, adherence rates to Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound recommendations were calculated for examinations before tool launch and compared with adherence rates to the collaborative institutional recommendations after tool launch. Additionally, electronic medical records were reviewed to determine the follow-up chosen by the clinician. RESULTS: For cysts detected on ultrasound, radiologist adherence to recommendations improved from 50% (98 of 197) to 80% (111 of 139) (P < .05). Overmanagement decreased from 34% (67 of 197) to 10% (14 of 139) (P < .05). A recommendation was considered "overmanaged" if the radiologist recommended follow-up when it was not indicated or if the recommended follow-up time was at a shorter interval than indicated. Clinician adherence to radiologist recommendations showed statistically nonsignificant improvement from 49% (36 of 73) to 57% (27 of 47) (P = .5034). CONCLUSIONS: Management recommendations developed through collaboration with clinicians may help standardize follow-up of ovarian cysts and reduce overutilization.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Abdominal and Pelvic Pain in the Pregnant Patient
The utility of MR imaging in evaluating abdominal and pelvic pain in the pregnant patient is discussed. Details regarding the indications, technical aspects, and imaging findings of various common abdominal and pelvic abnormalities in pregnancy are reviewed.
Extrinsic Esophageal Compression by Cervical Osteophytes in Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: A Contraindication to Transesophageal Echocardiography?
Contraindications to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) include various esophageal pathologies, but compression of the esophagus by vertebral osteophytes is not listed in the current American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. We report a case of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in an 81-year-old man who had incidentally been found to have extrinsic esophageal compression by cervical osteophytes prior to a proposed TEE. The incidence of esophageal perforation in patients with DISH and vertebral osteophytes is not well documented. We believe these patients are at increased risk of esophageal perforation during TEE, and thus, TEE may be relatively contraindicated in patients with DISH.