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An overview of frailty in kidney transplantation: measurement, management and future considerations

Harhay, Meera N; Rao, Maya K; Woodside, Kenneth J; Johansen, Kirsten L; Lentine, Krista L; Tullius, Stefan G; Parsons, Ronald F; Alhamad, Tarek; Berger, Joseph; Cheng, XingXing S; Lappin, Jaqueline; Lynch, Raymond; Parajuli, Sandesh; Tan, Jane C; Segev, Dorry L; Kaplan, Bruce; Kobashigawa, Jon; Dadhania, Darshana M; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
The construct of frailty was first developed in gerontology to help identify older adults with increased vulnerability when confronted with a health stressor. This article is a review of studies in which frailty has been applied to pre- and post-kidney transplantation (KT) populations. Although KT is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), KT candidates often must overcome numerous health challenges associated with ESKD before receiving KT. After KT, the impacts of surgery and immunosuppression represent additional health stressors that disproportionately impact individuals with frailty. Frailty metrics could improve the ability to identify KT candidates and recipients at risk for adverse health outcomes and those who could potentially benefit from interventions to improve their frail status. The Physical Frailty Phenotype (PFP) is the most commonly used frailty metric in ESKD research, and KT recipients who are frail at KT (~20% of recipients) are twice as likely to die as nonfrail recipients. In addition to the PFP, many other metrics are currently used to assess pre- and post-KT vulnerability in research and clinical practice, underscoring the need for a disease-specific frailty metric that can be used to monitor KT candidates and recipients. Although frailty is an independent risk factor for post-transplant adverse outcomes, it is not factored into the current transplant program risk-adjustment equations. Future studies are needed to explore pre- and post-KT interventions to improve or prevent frailty.
PMID: 32191296
ISSN: 1460-2385
CID: 5126222

Perceptions and Practices Regarding Frailty in Kidney Transplantation: Results of a National Survey

McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Chu, Nadia M; Agoons, Dayawa; Parsons, Ronald F; Alhamad, Tarek; Johansen, Kirsten L; Tullius, Stefan G; Lynch, Raymond; Harhay, Meera N; Rao, Maya K; Berger, Joseph; Cooper, Matthew; Tan, Jane C; Cheng, XingXing S; Woodside, Kenneth J; Parajuli, Sandesh; Lentine, Krista L; Kaplan, Bruce; Segev, Dorry L; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Dadhania, Darshana
BACKGROUND:Given the potential utility of frailty, a clinical phenotype of decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors, to predict postkidney transplant (KT) outcomes, we sought to understand the perceptions and practices regarding frailty measurement in US KT programs. METHODS:Surveys were emailed to American Society of Transplantation Kidney/Pancreas Community of Practice members and 202 US transplant programs (November 2017 to April 2018). Program characteristics were gleaned from Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. RESULTS:The 133 responding programs (response rate = 66%) represented 77% of adult KTs and 79% of adult KT candidates in the United States. Respondents considered frailty to be a useful concept in evaluating candidacy (99%) and endorsed a need to develop a frailty measurement specific to KT (92%). Frailty measurement was more common during candidacy evaluation (69%) than during KT admission (28%). Of the 202 programs, 38% performed frailty assessments in all candidates while 23% performed assessments only for older candidates. There was heterogeneity in the frailty assessment method; 18 different tools were utilized to measure frailty. The most common tool was a timed walk test (19%); 67% reported performing >1 tool. Among programs that measure frailty, 53% reported being less likely to list frail patients for KT. CONCLUSIONS:Among US KT programs, frailty is recognized as a clinically relevant construct and is commonly measured at evaluation. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the tools used to measure frailty. Efforts to identify optimal measurement of frailty using either an existing or a novel tool and subsequent standardization of its measurement and application across KT programs should be considered.
PMID: 31343576
ISSN: 1534-6080
CID: 5129582

Report from the American Society of Transplantation on frailty in solid organ transplantation

Kobashigawa, Jon; Dadhania, Darshana; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Adey, Deborah; Berger, Joseph; Bhat, Geetha; Budev, Marie; Duarte-Rojo, Andres; Dunn, Michael; Hall, Shelley; Harhay, Meera N; Johansen, Kirsten L; Joseph, Susan; Kennedy, Cassie C; Kransdorf, Evan; Lentine, Krista L; Lynch, Raymond J; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Nagai, Shunji; Olymbios, Michael; Patel, Jignesh; Pinney, Sean; Schaenman, Joanna; Segev, Dorry L; Shah, Palak; Singer, Lianne G; Singer, Jonathan P; Sonnenday, Christopher; Tandon, Puneeta; Tapper, Elliot; Tullius, Stefan G; Wilson, Michael; Zamora, Martin; Lai, Jennifer C
A consensus conference on frailty in kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantation sponsored by the American Society of Transplantation (AST) and endorsed by the American Society of Nephrology (ASN), the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS), and the Canadian Society of Transplantation (CST) took place on February 11, 2018 in Phoenix, Arizona. Input from the transplant community through scheduled conference calls enabled wide discussion of current concepts in frailty, exploration of best practices for frailty risk assessment of transplant candidates and for management after transplant, and development of ideas for future research. A current understanding of frailty was compiled by each of the solid organ groups and is presented in this paper. Frailty is a common entity in patients with end-stage organ disease who are awaiting organ transplantation, and affects mortality on the waitlist and in the posttransplant period. The optimal methods by which frailty should be measured in each organ group are yet to be determined, but studies are underway. Interventions to reverse frailty vary among organ groups and appear promising. This conference achieved its intent to highlight the importance of frailty in organ transplantation and to plant the seeds for further discussion and research in this field.
PMID: 30506632
ISSN: 1600-6143
CID: 5129112

Experience and complications with the use of hypertonic intra-amniotic saline solution

Berk, H; Ullman, J; Berger, J
PMID: 5315748
ISSN: 0039-6087
CID: 2633942