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Intracorporeal and extracorporeal anastomosis for robotic-assisted and laparoscopic right colectomy: short-term outcomes of a multi-center prospective trial

Cleary, Robert K; Silviera, Matthew; Reidy, Tobi J; McCormick, James; Johnson, Craig S; Sylla, Patricia; Cannon, Jamie; Lujan, Henry; Kassir, Andrew; Landmann, Ron; Gaertner, Wolfgang; Lee, Edward; Bastawrous, Amir; Bardakcioglu, Ovunc; Pandey, Sushil; Attaluri, Vikram; Bernstein, Mitchell; Obias, Vincent; Franklin, Morris E; Pigazzi, Alessio
BACKGROUND:Studies to date show contrasting conclusions when comparing intracorporeal and extracorporeal anastomoses for minimally invasive right colectomy. Large multi-center prospective studies comparing perioperative outcomes between these two techniques are needed. The purpose of this study was to compare intracorporeal and extracorporeal anastomoses outcomes for robotic assisted and laparoscopic right colectomy. METHODS:Multi-center, prospective, observational study of patients with malignant or benign disease scheduled for laparoscopic or robotic-assisted right colectomy. Outcomes included conversion rate, gastrointestinal recovery, and complication rates. RESULTS:There were 280 patients: 156 in the robotic assisted and laparoscopic intracorporeal anastomosis (IA) group and 124 in the robotic assisted and laparoscopic extracorporeal anastomosis (EA) group. The EA group was older (mean age 67 vs. 65 years, p = 0.05) and had fewer white (81% vs. 90%, p = 0.05) and Hispanic (2% vs. 12%, p = 0.003) patients. The EA group had more patients with comorbidities (82% vs. 72%, p = 0.04) while there was no significant difference in individual comorbidities between groups. IA was associated with fewer conversions to open and hand-assisted laparoscopic approaches (p = 0.007), shorter extraction site incision length (4.9 vs. 6.2 cm; p ≤ 0.0001), and longer operative time (156.9 vs. 118.2 min). Postoperatively, patients with IA had shorter time to first flatus, (1.5 vs. 1.8 days; p ≤ 0.0001), time to first bowel movement (1.6 vs. 2.0 days; p = 0.0005), time to resume soft/regular diet (29.0 vs. 37.5 h; p = 0.0014), and shorter length of hospital stay (median, 3 vs. 4 days; p ≤ 0.0001). Postoperative complication rates were comparable between groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective, multi-center study of minimally invasive right colectomy across 20 institutions, IA was associated with significant improvements in conversion rates, return of bowel function, and shorter hospital stay, as well as significantly longer operative times compared to EA. These data validate current efforts to increase training and adoption of the IA technique for minimally invasive right colectomy.
PMID: 34724580
ISSN: 1432-2218
CID: 5037872

Robotic ileocolic resection with intracorporeal anastomosis for Crohn's disease

Aydinli, H Hande; Anderson, Marissa; Hambrecht, Amanda; Bernstein, Mitchell A; Grucela, Alexis L
The robotic platform can overcome limitations of the laparoscopic approach, particularly in the facilitation of intracorporeal anastomosis creation. We aim to share our institutional experience with robotic ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease (CD) and compare it to a laparoscopic cohort. We identified patients who underwent ileocolic resection for CD with a purely robotic (R) or laparoscopic (L) approach between February 2015 and 2018. Chart review was performed and preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data was collected. A total of 47 patients with a mean age of 35.2 years old were identified and 61% were female. Seventy percent [n = 33, (23 females, 69.6%)] of the cases were performed robotically and 30% of the cases [n = 14, (6 females, 42.8%)] were performed laparoscopically. The groups were well matched for age, gender, BMI as well as disease related factors (CD duration; clinical classification and location), perioperative immunosuppression, and surgical history. Time to bowel function was shorter by about 1 day in the robotic group (R: 1.9 ± 0.88 days vs. L: 2.7 ± 0.8 days, p = 0.003). Mean operative time was longer in the robotic group by 51 min and this difference was significant (p = 0.03), however 30.3% of patients underwent ureteral stent placement, which can account for added time in robotic cases. There were less conversions in the robotic group [R: 1(4.3%) vs. L: 1(7%)], but this was not significant. There were no intraoperative complications in either group. Complication (L: 21.4% vs. R: 15.1%, p = 0.605) and reoperation rates (L: 0% vs. R: 3.03%, p = 0.429) were similar. Robotic ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease is as safe and feasible as the laparoscopic approach. This was accomplished with no leaks, major morbidity or mortality and comparable length of stay, with 1 day shorter return of bowel function, and with a lower overall complication rate. The robotic approach offers advantages in Crohn's disease which should be studied further in prospective studies.
PMID: 32725327
ISSN: 1863-2491
CID: 4540252

Early experience with urgent robotic subtotal colectomy for severe acute ulcerative colitis has comparable perioperative outcomes to laparoscopic surgery

Anderson, Marissa; Lynn, Patricio; Aydinli, Huriye Hande; Schwartzberg, David; Bernstein, Mitchell; Grucela, Alexis
It has been established that patients undergoing subtotal colectomy for UC benefit from a minimally invasive approach, despite the longer operating times associated with laparoscopic surgery when compared to open surgery (Andersson and Söderholm in Dig Dis 27(3):335-340, 2009; Telem et al. in Surg Endosc 24(7):1616-1620, 2010; Wu et al. in Int J Colorectal Dis 25(8):949-957, 2010). Our objective is to present our early experience with urgent robotic subtotal colectomy (RSTC) and compare them to a matched cohort of patients who underwent urgent laparoscopic subtotal colectomy (LSTC). A prospectively maintained institutional database was queried. Six RSTC patients and 13 LSTC patients were identified from 2015 to 2017. There was no difference in ASA score, body mass index, preoperative steroid use, c. difficile infection, or inflammatory markers between the groups. All patients in the robotic group and eight patients in the laparoscopic group received preoperative biologics. Neither group had intraoperative complications, open conversions, or 30-day mortality recorded. Robotic STC took 29 min longer (323.0 vs. 294.0 min, p = 0.3). There was no significant difference in blood loss between the two groups (80 ml vs. 75 ml p = 0.9). There were six postoperative complications (46%) in the laparoscopic group and 1 (20%) in the robotic group. Of these 23% (3/13) for LSTC and 0% (0/5) for RSTC were Grade III or higher. Two laparoscopic and 0 robotic patients required reoperation. The RSTC group had earlier stoma function (1.4 ± 0.8 days vs. 2 ± 1.3 days) and shorter LOS (3.4 ± 2 vs. 4.6 ± 3.2) than the LSTC group, but these did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, urgent robotic subtotal colectomy for UC is safe and offers technical advantages.
PMID: 31076952
ISSN: 1863-2491
CID: 3914442

Alvimopan for the Prevention of Postoperative Ileus in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

Jang, Janice; Kwok, Benjamin; Zhong, Hua; Xia, Yuhe; Grucela, Alexis; Bernstein, Mitchell; Remzi, Feza; Hudesman, David; Chen, Jingjing; Axelrad, Jordan; Chang, Shannon
BACKGROUND:Postoperative ileus (POI) is a temporary delay of coordinated intestinal peristalsis. Alvimopan, an oral peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist approved for accelerating gastrointestinal recovery, has never been studied specifically in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the efficacy of alvimopan in preventing POI among IBD patients. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted on 246 IBD patients undergoing bowel surgery between 2012 and 2017. Data collected included demographics, IBD subtype, length of stay (LOS), postoperative gastrointestinal symptoms, and administration of alvimopan. The primary outcome was POI; secondary gastrointestinal recovery outcomes were: time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement, time to tolerating a liquid diet, time to tolerating solid food, and LOS. RESULTS:When compared with the control group, patients in the alvimopan group had shorter times to tolerating liquids and solids, first flatus, and first bowel movements (p < 0.01). LOS was shorter in the alvimopan group when compared with controls (p < 0.01). The overall incidence of POI was higher in controls than in the alvimopan group (p = 0.07). For laparoscopic surgeries, the incidence of POI was also higher in controls than in the alvimopan group (p < 0.01). On multivariable analysis, alvimopan significantly decreased time to all gastrointestinal recovery endpoints when compared to controls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Alvimopan is effective in accelerating time to gastrointestinal recovery and reducing POI in IBD patients. While the benefits of alvimopan have been demonstrated previously, this is the first study of the efficacy of alvimopan in IBD patients.
PMID: 31522323
ISSN: 1573-2568
CID: 4097752

The Financial and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Health Record Integrated Pathway in Elective Colon Surgery

Austrian, Jonathan S; Volpicelli, Frank; Jones, Simon; Bernstein, Mitchell A; Padikkala, Jane; Bagheri, Ashley; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) pathways have been shown to reduce length of stay, but there have been limited evaluations of novel electronic health record (EHR)-based pathways. Compliance with ERAS in real-world settings has been problematic. OBJECTIVE: This article evaluates a novel ERAS electronic pathway (E-Pathway) activity integrated with the EHR for patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of surgical patients age ≥ 18 years hospitalized from March 1, 2013 to August 31, 2016. The primary cohort consisted of patients admitted for elective colon surgery. We also studied a control group of patients undergoing other elective procedures. The E-Pathway was implemented on March 2, 2015. The primary outcome was variable costs per case. Secondary outcomes were observed to expected length of stay and 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: = 0.231) decrease in monthly costs of 0.57% (95% CI 1.51 to - 0.37%) postintervention. For the 30-day readmission rates, there were no statistically significant changes in either cohort. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report on the reduced costs after implementation of a novel sophisticated E-Pathway for ERAS. E-Pathways can be a powerful vehicle to support ERAS adoption.
PMID: 32023638
ISSN: 1869-0327
CID: 4301432

Robotic transanal minimally invasive rectal mucosa harvest

Howard, Katherine N; Zhao, Lee C; Weinberg, Aaron C; Granieri, Michael; Bernstein, Mitchell A; Grucela, Alexis L
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Buccal mucosal grafts (BMG) are traditionally used in urethral reconstruction. There may be insufficient BMG for applications requiring large grafts, such as urethral stricture after gender-affirming phalloplasty. Rectal mucosa in lieu of BMG avoids oral impairment, while potentially affording less postoperative pain and larger graft dimensions. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) using laparoscopic instruments has been described. Due to technical challenges of harvesting a sizable graft within the rectal lumen, we adopted a new robotic approach. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a novel technique of Robotic TAMIS (R-TAMIS) in the harvest of rectal mucosa for the purpose of onlay graft urethroplasty. METHODS:Path Transanal Access. Mucosa was harvested robotically after submucosal hydrodissection. Graft size harvested correlated with surface area needed for urethral or vaginal reconstruction. Following specimen retrieval, flexible sigmoidoscopy confirmed hemostasis. The graft was placed as an onlay for urethroplasty. RESULTS:There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Mean graft size was 11.4 × 3.0 cm. All reconstructions had excellent graft take. All patients recovered without morbidity or mortality. They reported minimal postoperative pain and all regained bowel function on postoperative day one. Patients with prior BMG harvests subjectively self-reported less postoperative pain and greater quality of life. There have been no long-term complications at a median follow-up of 17 months. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first use of R-TAMIS for rectal mucosa harvest. Our preliminary series indicates this approach is feasible and safe, constituting a promising minimally invasive technique for urethral reconstruction. Prospective studies evaluating graft outcomes and donor site morbidity with more long-term follow-up are needed.
PMID: 31187232
ISSN: 1432-2218
CID: 3930032

A novel surgery: robotic transanal rectal mucosal harvest

Howard, K N; Zhao, L C; Weinberg, A C; Granieri, M; Bernstein, M A; Grucela, A L
PMID: 31144084
ISSN: 1128-045x
CID: 4370802

Is the whole world watching and waiting? An International Questionnaire on the current practices of 'Watch & Wait' rectal cancer treatment

Schwartzberg, David M; Grieco, Michael J; Timen, Micah; Grucela, Alexis L; Bernstein, Mitchell A; Wexner, Steven D
PMID: 30506653
ISSN: 1463-1318
CID: 3520202

Association of dietary fibre intake and gut microbiota in adults

Lin, Daniel; Peters, Brandilyn A; Friedlander, Charles; Freiman, Hal J; Goedert, James J; Sinha, Rashmi; Miller, George; Bernstein, Mitchell A; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung
Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota may influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet, particularly fibre intake, may modify gut microbiota composition, which may affect cancer risk. We investigated the relationship between dietary fibre intake and gut microbiota in adults. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assessed gut microbiota in faecal samples from 151 adults in two independent study populations: National Cancer Institute (NCI), n 75, and New York University (NYU), n 76. We calculated energy-adjusted fibre intake based on FFQ. For each study population with adjustment for age, sex, race, BMI and smoking, we evaluated the relationship between fibre intake and gut microbiota community composition and taxon abundance. Total fibre intake was significantly associated with overall microbial community composition in NYU (P=0·008) but not in NCI (P=0·81). In a meta-analysis of both study populations, higher fibre intake tended to be associated with genera of class Clostridia, including higher abundance of SMB53 (fold change (FC)=1·04, P=0·04), Lachnospira (FC=1·03, P=0·05) and Faecalibacterium (FC=1·03, P=0·06), and lower abundance of Actinomyces (FC=0·95, P=0·002), Odoribacter (FC=0·95, P=0·03) and Oscillospira (FC=0·96, P=0·06). A species-level meta-analysis showed that higher fibre intake was marginally associated with greater abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FC=1·03, P=0·07) and lower abundance of Eubacterium dolichum (FC=0·96, P=0·04) and Bacteroides uniformis (FC=0·97, P=0·05). Thus, dietary fibre intake may impact gut microbiota composition, particularly class Clostridia, and may favour putatively beneficial bacteria such as F. prausnitzii. These findings warrant further understanding of diet-microbiota relationships for future development of colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
PMID: 30355393
ISSN: 1475-2662
CID: 3384862

A Novel surgery: Robotic transanal rectal mucosal harvest [Meeting Abstract]

Zhao, L C; Howard, K N; Weinberg, A; Bernstein, M A; Grucela, A L
Introduction & Objective: Buccal mucosal grafts (BMG) are traditionally used in urethral reconstruction; however, rectal mucosa is an alternative with less post-operative pain, no impairment in eating and speaking, and larger attainable graft dimension. Laparoscopic transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has been described by our group. Due to the technical challenges of harvesting a sizable graft within a confined space, we adopted a new approach using the Intuitive da Vinci Xi system. We present a video which fully demonstrates our technique in the novel procedure of Robotic TAMIS (R-TAMIS) rectal mucosal harvest, for the purpose of onlay graft urethroplasty.
Method(s): A 53-year-old transgender male presented with postphalloplasty urethral stricture and underwent robotic rectal mucosal harvest. His past surgical history included vaginectomy and metoidioplasty usingBMGin 2008, followed by right forearmfree flap phalloplasty five months prior to presentation. The procedure was first demonstrated in an animal model using bovine colon. IRB approval was obtained. The surgery was performed under general anesthesia with the patient in lithotomy position. The GelPOINTTM Path Transanal Access Platform was used. As demonstrated, the rectal mucosa was dissected using robotic instruments after submucosal hydrodissection. Following specimen retrieval, flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to ensure hemostasis. The rectal mucosa graft was placed as an onlay for urethroplasty.
Result(s): Harvested graft size was 3.5 x 10cm, correlating well with surface area needed for urethral reconstruction as determined by the urologist. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and the patient recovered well, without morbidity or mortality. He regained bowel function on the first postoperative day, and reported significantly less postoperative pain in comparison to his prior BMG harvest.
Conclusion(s): To our knowledge, this is the first use of R-TAMIS for harvest of rectal mucosal graft. The robotic approach is safe and feasible. This is a promising minimally-invasive technique to harvest rectal mucosa, which can be used for urethral or vaginal reconstruction. Demonstrated feasibility and potential avoidance of the challenging recovery associated withBMGharvest warrants further application and long-term evaluation of this procedure
ISSN: 1557-900x
CID: 3790162