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Excisional Debridement for Chronic Achilles Insertional Tendinosis: A Novel Technique and Case Review

Gaston, Tara E; Skibicki, Hope E; Cheesman, Quincy T; Chapter, Megan C; Daniel, Joseph N
BACKGROUND:Operative treatment of chronic Achilles insertional tendinosis (AIT) involves tendon debridement, removal of the retrocalcaneal bursitis, and excision of the calcaneal exostosis, often followed by repair of the Achilles tendon and deep tendon transfer. The literature describes a variety of techniques without a single standard of care. METHODS:This is a retrospective review of 57 patients treated with an excisional debridement of the central portion of the Achilles tendon. The novelty of this technique is that instead of complete detachment of the tendon from its insertion, only the central portion is debrided and excised. This allows for enhanced visibility of the calcaneal exostosis and increased healing with apposition of viable tendon during side-to-side repair. RESULTS:Patient-reported outcome scores and pain significantly improved from preoperatively to a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Complications were similar to those previously reported, with superficial wound breakdown being the most common. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, the use of this reliable, reproducible, and effective technique for the treatment of patients with chronic AIT is encouraged because it provides both enhanced visibility and allows complete resection of all pathological tissue. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level IV: Retrospective case series.
PMID: 34689642
ISSN: 1938-7636
CID: 5038752

Prospective Evaluation of Utilization Patterns and Prescribing Guidelines of Opioid Consumption Following Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Surgery

Saini, Sundeep; McDonald, Elizabeth L; Shakked, Rachel; Nicholson, Kristen; Rogero, Ryan; Chapter, Megan; Winters, Brian S; Pedowitz, David I; Raikin, Steven M; Daniel, Joseph N
BACKGROUND:Overprescription of narcotic pain medication is a major culprit in the present opioid epidemic plaguing the United States. The current literature on lower extremity opioid usage has limitations and would benefit from additional study. The purpose of our study was to prospectively assess opioid consumption patterns following outpatient orthopedic foot and ankle procedures. METHODS:Patients undergoing outpatient orthopedic foot and ankle procedures who met inclusion criteria had the following prospective information collected: patient demographics, preoperative health history, patient-reported outcomes, anesthesia type, procedure type, opioid prescription and consumption details. The morphine equivalent dose was calculated for each prescription and then converted to the equivalent of a 5-mg oxycodone "pill." Univariable analyses were performed to identify variables with a statistically robust association with opioid consumption for inclusion in a multivariable linear regression. A stepwise backward regression was then performed to identify independent predictors of opioid consumption. Postoperative opioid utilization was reported for 988 patients (mean age: 49 years). RESULTS:=14.3, P < .001). CONCLUSION:Our study found that patients who underwent orthopedic foot and ankle procedures were overprescribed narcotic medication by nearly twice the amount that was actually consumed. Although we identified 4 independent factors associated with opioid consumption, the large residual standard error suggests that there remains a substantial degree of unexplained variance of opioid consumption observed in the patient population. Physicians face a challenging task of setting appropriate protocols when balancing pain relief and generalizable guidelines. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level II, prospective observational cohort study.
PMID: 30124084
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 4112612

Achilles Tendon Disorders

Saini, Sundeep S; Reb, Christopher W; Chapter, Megan; Daniel, Joseph N
Disorders of the Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the human body, are common and occur in both active and sedentary persons. A thorough history and physical examination allow primary care physicians to make an accurate diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management. Mismanaged or neglected injuries markedly decrease a patient's quality of life. A growing body of related literature is the basis for current therapeutic regimens, which use a multimodal conservative approach, including osteopathic manipulative treatment. Although primary care physicians can manage most cases of Achilles tendon disorders, specialty care may be needed in certain instances. Procedural intervention should consider any comorbid conditions in addition to patients' lifestyle to help guide decision making. When appropriately managed, Achilles tendon disorders generally carry a favorable prognosis.
PMID: 26501760
ISSN: 1945-1997
CID: 4112602

GIT2 acts as a potential keystone protein in functional hypothalamic networks associated with age-related phenotypic changes in rats

Chadwick, Wayne; Martin, Bronwen; Chapter, Megan C; Park, Sung-Soo; Wang, Liyun; Daimon, Caitlin M; Brenneman, Randall; Maudsley, Stuart
The aging process affects every tissue in the body and represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated inevitable physiological entities. The maintenance of good health during the aging process likely relies upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and the periphery. Evidence has demonstrated that the optimal regulation of energy usage in both these systems facilitates healthy aging. However, the proteomic effects of aging in regions of the brain vital for integrating energy balance and neuronal activity are not well understood. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the effects of aging in the hypothalamus may reveal important aspects of overall organismal aging and may potentially reveal the most crucial protein factors supporting this vital signaling integration. In this study, we examined alterations in protein expression in the hypothalami of young, middle-aged, and old rats. Using novel combinatorial bioinformatics analyses, we were able to gain a better understanding of the proteomic and phenotypic changes that occur during the aging process and have potentially identified the G protein-coupled receptor/cytoskeletal-associated protein GIT2 as a vital integrator and modulator of the normal aging process.
PMID: 22606319
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 4112592

Vasoactive intestinal peptide-null mice demonstrate enhanced sweet taste preference, dysglycemia, and reduced taste bud leptin receptor expression

Martin, Bronwen; Shin, Yu-Kyong; White, Caitlin M; Ji, Sunggoan; Kim, Wook; Carlson, Olga D; Napora, Joshua K; Chadwick, Wayne; Chapter, Megan; Waschek, James A; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M
OBJECTIVE:It is becoming apparent that there is a strong link between taste perception and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence implicates gut-related hormones in taste perception, including glucagon-like peptide 1 and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We used VIP knockout mice to investigate VIP's specific role in taste perception and connection to energy regulation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Body weight, food intake, and plasma levels of multiple energy-regulating hormones were measured and pancreatic morphology was determined. In addition, the immunocytochemical profile of taste cells and gustatory behavior were examined in wild-type and VIP knockout mice. RESULTS:VIP knockout mice demonstrate elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels, with no islet beta-cell number/topography alteration. VIP and its receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) were identified in type II taste cells of the taste bud, and VIP knockout mice exhibit enhanced taste preference to sweet tastants. VIP knockout mouse taste cells show a significant decrease in leptin receptor expression and elevated expression of glucagon-like peptide 1, which may explain sweet taste preference of VIP knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that the tongue can play a direct role in modulating energy intake to correct peripheral glycemic imbalances. In this way, we could view the tongue as a sensory mechanism that is bidirectionally regulated and thus forms a bridge between available foodstuffs and the intricate hormonal balance in the animal itself.
PMID: 20150284
ISSN: 1939-327x
CID: 4112582

Chemical modification of class II G protein-coupled receptor ligands: frontiers in the development of peptide analogs as neuroendocrine pharmacological therapies

Chapter, Megan C; White, Caitlin M; DeRidder, Angela; Chadwick, Wayne; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart
Recent research and clinical data have begun to demonstrate the huge potential therapeutic importance of ligands that modulate the activity of the secretin-like, Class II, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Ligands that can modulate the activity of these Class II GPCRs may have important clinical roles in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders. While these receptors present important new therapeutic targets, the large glycoprotein nature of their cognate ligands poses many problems with respect to therapeutic peptidergic drug design. These native peptides often exhibit poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, poor receptor selectivity and resultant low potencies in vivo. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the structural modification of these peptides to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Successful modification strategies have included d-amino acid substitutions, selective truncation, and fatty acid acylation of the peptide. Through these and other processes, these novel peptide ligand analogs can demonstrate enhanced receptor subtype selectivity, directed signal transduction pathway activation, resistance to proteolytic degradation, and improved systemic bioavailability. In the future, it is likely, through additional modification strategies such as addition of circulation-stabilizing transferrin moieties, that the therapeutic pharmacopeia of drugs targeted towards Class II secretin-like receptors may rival that of the Class I rhodopsin-like receptors that currently provide the majority of clinically used GPCR-based therapeutics. Currently, Class II-based drugs include synthesized analogs of vasoactive intestinal peptide for type 2 diabetes or parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis.
PMID: 19686775
ISSN: 1879-016x
CID: 4112572