Commentary: New onset atrial fibrillation: Not just a nuisance [Editorial]
Use of a novel digital drainage system after pulmonary resection
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The Thoraguard Surgical Drainage System is a novel device for drainage of air and fluid after cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A three-part study was conducted: a prospective observational safety and feasibility study, a retrospective comparison of patients managed with an analogue drainage system, and a clinician user-feedback survey. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:2.8 days (IQR 1-3) (P=0.004). Compared to an analogue system, the Thoraguard system had superior user-reported ability to detect air-leaks (17/23, 74%), better ease of patient ambulation (14/23, 61%), and better display of clinically relevant information (22/23, 96%). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The Thoraguard Surgical Drainage System provides safe and effective drainage post pulmonary resection. Compared to an analogue system, the Thoraguard system detected a higher number of air leaks and was associated with decreased chest tube duration and hospital length of stay. User survey data reported superior air leak detection, display of clinical data, and ease of use of the Thoraguard system.
Incidence, Management, and Outcomes of Patients With COVID-19 and Pneumothorax
BACKGROUND:Our objective was to report the incidence, management, and outcomes of patients who developed a secondary pneumothorax while admitted for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:A single-institution, retrospective review of patients admitted for COVID-19 with a diagnosis of pneumothorax between March 1, 2020, and April 30, 2020, was performed. The primary assessment was the incidence of pneumothorax. Secondarily, we analyzed clinical outcomes of patients requiring tube thoracostomy, including those requiring operative intervention. RESULTS:From March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, 118 of 1595 patients (7.4%) admitted for COVID-19 developed a pneumothorax. Of these, 92 (5.8%) required tube thoracostomy drainage for a median of 12 days (interquartile range 5-25 days). The majority of patients (95 of 118, 80.5%) were on mechanical ventilation at the time of pneumothorax, 17 (14.4%) were iatrogenic, and 25 patients (21.2%) demonstrated tension physiology. Placement of a large-bore chest tube (20 F or greater) was associated with fewer tube-related complications than a small-bore tube (14 F or less) (14 vs 26 events, PÂ = .011). Six patients with pneumothorax (5.1%) required operative management for a persistent alveolar-pleural fistula. In patients with pneumothorax, median hospital stay was 36 days (interquartile range 20-63 days) and in-hospital mortality was significantly higher than for those without pneumothorax (58% vs 13%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of secondary pneumothorax in patients admitted for COVID-19 is 7.4%, most commonly occurring in patients requiring mechanical ventilation, and is associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 58%. Placement of large-bore chest tubes is associated with fewer complications than small-bore tubes.
Early experience with donation after circulatory death heart transplantation using normothermic regional perfusion in the United States
OBJECTIVE:This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of our donation after circulatory death (DCD) heart transplantation protocol using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for normothermic regional reperfusion (NRP). METHODS:Suitable local DCD candidates were transferred to our institution. Life support was withdrawn in the operating room (OR). On declaration of circulatory death, sternotomy was performed, and the aortic arch vessels were ligated. CPB was initiated with left ventricular venting. The heart was reperfused, with correction of any metabolic abnormalities. CPB was weaned, and cardiac function was assessed at 30-minute intervals. If accepted, the heart was procured with cold preservation and transplanted into recipients in a nearby OR. RESULTS:Between January 2020 and January 2021, a total of 8 DCD heart transplants were performed: 6 isolated hearts, 1 heart-lung, and 1 combined heart and kidney. All donor hearts were successfully resuscitated and weaned from CPB without inotropic support. Average lactate and potassium levels decreased from 9.39Â Â±Â 1.47Â mmol/L to 7.20Â Â±Â 0.13Â mmol/L and 7.49Â Â±Â 1.32Â mmol/L to 4.36Â Â±Â 0.67Â mmol/L, respectively. Post-transplantation, the heart-lung transplant recipient required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary lung graft dysfunction but was decannulated on postoperative day 3 and recovered uneventfully. All other recipients required minimal inotropic support without mechanical circulatory support. Survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 304Â days (interquartile range, 105-371Â days). CONCLUSIONS:DCD heart transplantation outcomes have been excellent. Our DCD protocol is adoptable for more widespread use and will increase donor heart availability in the United States.
Discharging Patients by Postoperative Day One After Robotic Anatomic Pulmonary Resection
BACKGROUND:Our objective is to assess the feasibility and safety of discharging patients by postoperative day one (POD1) after robotic segmentectomy and lobectomy, and to describe outcomes for patients. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was made of a prospectively collected database of a quality improvement initiative by a single surgeon. Factors associated with discharge by POD1 were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS:From January 2018 to July 2020, of 253 patients who underwent robotic anatomic pulmonary resection, 134 (53%) were discharged by POD1, 67% after segmentectomy and 41% after lobectomy. Discharge by POD1 improved with experience and was achieved in 97% of patients after segmentectomy and 68% after lobectomy in the final quartile. Thirty-one patients (12%) were discharged home with a chest tube, including 7 (2.8%) on POD1. On multivariate analysis, never smokers and segmentectomy were associated with discharge by POD1. Conversely, decreased baseline performance status and perioperative complications were associated with discharge after POD1. There were 10 minor morbidities (4%), 6 major morbidities (2.4%), and no 30- or 90-day mortality. There were 4 readmissions (1.6%), of which 1 (0.4%) was after POD1 discharge. Patient satisfaction remained high throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS:With experience and communication, select patients can be discharged home on POD1 after robotic segmentectomy and lobectomy with excellent outcomes and high satisfaction. Discharge by POD1 was associated with never smokers and segmentectomy, and inversely associated with decreased baseline performance status and perioperative complications.
COVID-19-Associated Large- and Medium-Sized-Vessel Pathology: A Case Series
BACKGROUND:â€ƒCoronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) remains a public health crisis. The epidemiology of COVID-19-associated large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology is not well characterized. The aim of this study is to identify patients with possible COVID-19-associated large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology based on computed tomography (CT) imaging to provide insight into this rare, but potentially devastating, cardiovascular manifestation. METHODS:â€ƒThis is a single-center retrospective review of patients with CT chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis concerning for large- and medium-vessel pathology and confirmed COVID-19 infection from March 1, 2020 to October 31, 2020. RESULTS:â€ƒDuring the study period, 6,553 CT reports were reviewed and pertinent imaging was identified in 139 patients. Of these, 8 patients (median age: 59 years, range 51-82) were COVID-19 positive. All patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors and three (37.5%) had an autoimmune disease. Four patients were never hospitalized for COVID-19. Among these, two presented to the hospital at a median of 39 days (range: 27-50) after their initial COVID-19 test with chest and back pain where imaging revealed extensive aortic pathology. One patient required surgical management for aortic pathology. All other patients were treated with expectant management and outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒThe clinical and radiological presentations of COVID-19-associated large- and medium-vessel pathology are heterogeneous and can be a late finding after COVID-19 recovery. Close clinical follow-up and surveillance imaging for large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology may be warranted in COVID-19 patients.
Safety and Feasibility of an Early Mobilization Protocol for Patients with Femoral Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps as Bridge to Heart Transplant
Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) can be used to provide hemodynamic support in patients with end-stage heart failure as a bridge to transplantation (BTT). The IABP is commonly inserted via the common femoral artery, which can limit patients' mobility. The Ramsey protocol, developed by a critical care physical therapist, allows patients with femoral IABPs to ambulate with the assistance of a tilt table. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a modified Ramsey protocol for early mobilization of patients with femoral IABPs as BTT. This is a retrospective single-center review of patients with femoral IABPs as BTT using a tilt table protocol from May 2019 to May 2020. Primary outcomes were time to successful ambulation, number of successful ambulation events, and ambulation-associated adverse events, including IABP augmentation, waveform, positioning changes, and vascular complications at the insertion site. Twenty-four patients (mean age 55 Â± 16 years) underwent femoral IABP insertion as BTT and were mobilized following our protocol. Nineteen patients (79.2%) successfully ambulated with a median of three sessions (interquartile range, 2-4) per patient. The median time from IABP insertion to ambulation was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-5). Twenty-one patients underwent heart transplantation, of which all 19 who ambulated were successfully bridged to transplantation. Early mobilization in select patients with femoral IABPs can be performed safely and successfully, avoiding the deleterious effects of bed rest that have been historically seen in this patient population.
Prior Infrarenal Aortic Surgery is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Complex Endovascular Aortic Repair
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with prior infrarenal aortic intervention represent an increasing demographic of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and/or complex EVAR. Studies have suggested that prior abdominal aortic surgery is a risk factor for spinal cord ischemia (SCI). However, these results are largely based on single-center experiences with limited multi-institutional and national data assessing clinical outcomes in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior infrarenal aortic surgery on SCI. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients â‰¥18 years old undergoing TEVAR/complex EVAR from January 2012 to June 2020. Patients with previous thoracic or suprarenal aortic repairs were excluded. Baseline and procedural characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared by group: TEVAR/complex EVAR with or without previous infrarenal aortic repair. The primary outcome was postoperative SCI. Secondary outcomes included postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), bowel ischemia, renal ischemia, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors of postoperative SCI. Additional analysis was performed for patients undergoing isolated TEVAR. RESULTS:A total of 9506 patients met the inclusion criteria: 8691 (91.4%) had no history of infrarenal aortic repair and 815 (8.6%) had previous infrarenal aortic repair. Patients with previous infrarenal repair were older with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (p=0.001) and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking history (p<0.001). These patients presented with larger maximal aortic diameters (6.06Â±1.47 cm versus 5.15Â±1.76 cm; p<0.001) and required more stent grafts (p<0.001) with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (p<0.001), and longer procedure times (p<0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated no difference in postoperative SCI, postoperative hospital LOS, bowel ischemia, or renal ischemia between the two groups. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with prior infrarenal repair (p=0.001). On multivariate regression, prior infrarenal aortic repair was not a predictor of postoperative SCI, while aortic dissection (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.16, p<0.001), number of stent grafts deployed (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.30-1.62, p<0.001), and units of packed red blood cells transfused intraoperatively (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.73, p=0.032) were independent predictors of SCI. CONCLUSIONS:Although TEVAR/complex EVAR patients with prior infrarenal aortic repair constituted a sicker cohort with higher 30-day mortality, the rate of SCI was comparable to patients without prior repair. Previous infrarenal repair was not associated with risk of SCI.
Hemoadsorption for management of patients on veno-venous ECMO support for severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome
BACKGROUND AND AIM/OBJECTIVE:Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a profound cytokine-mediated pro-inflammatory response. This study reports outcomes in 10 patients with COVID-19 supported on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) who were selected for the emergency use of a hemoadsorption column integrated in the ECMO circuit. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Pre and posttreatment, clinical data, and inflammatory markers were assessed to determine the safety and feasibility of using this system and to evaluate the clinical effect. RESULTS:During hemoadsorption, median levels of interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-10 decreased by 54%, 86%, and 64%, respectively. Reductions in other markers were observed for lactate dehydrogenase (-49%), ferritin (-46%), d-dimer (-7%), C-reactive protein (-55%), procalcitonin (-76%), and lactate (-44%). Vasoactive-inotrope scores decreased significantly over the treatment interval (-80%). The median hospital length of stay was 53 days (36-85) and at 90-days post cannulation, survival was 90% which was similar to a group of patients without the use of hemoadsorption. CONCLUSIONS:Addition of hemoadsorption to VV-ECMO in patients with severe COVID-19 is feasible and reduces measured cytokine levels. However, in this small series, the precise impact on the overall clinical course and survival benefit still remains unknown.
Adjunctive false lumen intervention for chronic aortic dissections is safe but offers unclear benefit
OBJECTIVE:Adjunctive false lumen embolization (FLE) with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with chronic aortic dissection is thought to induce FL thrombosis and favorable aortic remodeling. However, these data are derived from small single-institution experiences and the potential benefit of FLE remains unproven. In this study, we examined perioperative and midterm outcomes of patients with aortic dissection undergoing concomitant TEVAR and FLE.* METHODS: Patients 18 or older who underwent TEVAR for chronic aortic dissection with known FLE status in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database between January 2010 and February 2020 were included. Ruptured patients and emergent procedures were excluded. Patient characteristics, operative details and outcomes were analyzed by group: TEVAR with or without FLE. Primary outcomes were in-hospital post-operative complications and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included follow-up mean maximum aortic diameter change, rates of false lumen thrombosis, re-intervention rates, and mortality. RESULTS:884 patients were included: 46 had TEVAR/FLE and 838 had TEVAR alone. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of age, gender, comorbidities, prior aortic interventions, mean maximum pre-operative aortic diameter (5.1cm vs. 5.0cm, P=0.43), presentation symptomatology, or intervention indication. FLE was associated with significantly longer procedural times (178min vs. 146min, P=0.0002), increased contrast use (134mL vs. 113mL, P=0.02), and prolonged fluoroscopy time (34min vs. 21min, P<0.0001). However, FLE was not associated with a significant difference in post-operative complications (17.4% vs. 13.8%, P=0.51), length of stay (6.5 vs. 5.7 days, P=0.18), or in-hospital all-cause mortality (0% vs. 1.3%, P=1). In mid-term follow-up (median 15.5months, IQR 2.2-36.2 months), all-cause mortality trended lower, but was not significant (2.2% vs. 7.8%); and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in overall survival between groups (P=0.23). By Cox regression analysis, post-operative complications had the strongest independent association with all-cause mortality (HR 2.65, 95% CI 1.56-4.5, P<0.001). In patients with available follow-up imaging and re-intervention status, mean aortic diameter change (n=337, -0.71cm vs. -0.69cm, P=0.64) and re-intervention rates (n=487, 10% vs. 11.4%, P=1) were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Adjunctive FLE, despite increased procedural times, can be performed safely for patients with chronic dissection without significantly higher overall perioperative morbidity or mortality. TEVAR/FLE demonstrates trends for improved survival and increased rates of FL thrombosis in the treated thoracic segment; however, given the lack of evidence to suggest a significant reduction in re-intervention rates or induction of more favorable aortic remodeling compared to TEVAR alone, the overall utility of this technique in practice remains unclear. Further investigation is needed to determine the most appropriate role for FLE in managing chronic aortic dissections.