Impact of CytoSorb Hemoadsorption on Sedation Requirements in Patients With Severe COVID-19 on Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb has been used as an adjunct in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related respiratory failure. It remains unknown if CytoSorb hemoadsorption will alter sedative and analgesic dosing in critically ill patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). We conducted a retrospective review of patients with severe COVID-19 requiring VV-ECMO for respiratory support. Patients who were enrolled in a clinical study of CytoSorb were compared with patients on VV-ECMO alone. Data were collected for the 72-hour CytoSorb therapy and an additional 72 hours post-CytoSorb, or a corresponding control time period. Sedative and analgesic doses were totaled for each day and converted to midazolam or fentanyl equivalents, respectively. The primary endpoint, change in sedative and analgesic requirements over time, were compared using a two-way mixed analysis of variance. Of the 30 patients cannulated for VV-ECMO for COVID-19, 4 were excluded, leaving 8 patients in the CytoSorb arm and 18 in the Control. There was no effect of CytoSorb therapy on midazolam equivalents over the 72-hour therapy (p = 0.71) or the 72 hours post-CytoSorb (p = 0.11). In contrast, there was a significant effect of CytoSorb therapy on fentanyl equivalents over the first 72 hours (p = 0.01), but this was not consistent over the 72-hours post-CytoSorb (p = 0.23). CytoSorb therapy led to significant increases in analgesic requirements without impacting sedative requirements. Further research is needed to define the relevance of CytoSorb hemoadsorption on critical care pharmacotherapy.
Submassive pulmonary embolism with a right heart thrombus [Case Report]
A 49-year-old woman presented to the hospital with shortness of breath 2â€‰weeks after a left total hip replacement. She was found to have a submassive pulmonary embolism (PE), with her case complicated by the detection of a large mobile clot in transit extending through a patent foramen ovale between the right and left atria. The presence of this free-floating right heart thrombus (FFRHT) increases her risks of stroke and mortality, yet the optimal approach to her treatment was unclear. Ultimately, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was administered with resolution of the clot. Treatment was complicated by haemodynamically insignificant bleeding at the site of recent surgery. Herein, we further discuss the implications and treatment options for patients with an FFRHT in the setting of an acute PE.
Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING/METHODS:Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS/METHODS:Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS:In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.
Thrombosis at Hospital Presentation in Patients with and without COVID-19
OBJECTIVE:To better characterize COVID-19 patients most at risk for severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with an arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. There was a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in STEMI (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%), and an increase in the proportion of patients with VTE (29.4% to 52.7%). COVID-associated thrombosis were younger (58 years vs. 64 years, p=0.043), trended to be less frequently female (31.3% vs. 43.9%, p =0.16), but there was no difference body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19-associted thrombosis was correlated with a higher mortality (15.2% vs. 4.3%, p=0.016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-associated thrombosis compared to regular thrombosis had significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function tests, d-dimer, c-related protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels. CONCLUSIONS:Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization have an increased mortality over non-COVID-19 outpatients who develop thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory markers, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation may be a target to reduce the risk of or aid in the treatment of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role immunothrombosis maybe playing in COVID.
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Severe COVID-19
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remains a worldwide pandemic with a high mortality rate among patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The limited data that exists regarding the utility of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in these critically ill patients shows poor overall outcomes. This paper describes our institutional practice regarding the application and management of ECMO support for patients with Covid-19 and reports promising early outcomes. METHODS:>60 mmHg with no life-limiting comorbidities. Patients were cannulated at bedside and were managed with protective lung ventilation, early tracheostomy, bronchoscopies and proning as clinically indicated. RESULTS:Of 321 patients intubated for Covid-19, 77 (24%) patients were evaluated for ECMO support with 27 (8.4%) patients placed on ECMO. All patients were placed on veno-venous ECMO. Current survival is 96.3%, with only one mortality to date in over 350 days of total ECMO support. Thirteen patients (48.1%) remain on ECMO support, while 13 patients (48.1%) have been successfully decannulated. Seven patients (25.9%) have been discharged from the hospital. Six patients (22.2%) remain in the hospital of which four are on room-air. No healthcare workers that participated in ECMO cannulation developed symptoms of or tested positive for Covid-19. CONCLUSIONS:The early outcomes presented here suggest that the judicious use of ECMO support in severe Covid-19 may be clinically beneficial.
Pulmonary Embolism Response Team activation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a New York City Academic Hospital: a retrospective cohort analysis
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERT) have previously been associated with improved outcomes. We aimedÂ to investigate whether PERT utilization, recommendations, and outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute PE changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients with acute PE who received care at an academic hospital system in New York City between March 1st and April 30th, 2020. These patients were compared against historic controls between March 1st and April 30th, 2019. PE severity, PERT utilization, initial management, PERT recommendations, and outcomes were compared. There were more cases of PE during the pandemic (82 vs. 59), but less PERT activations (26.8% vs. 64.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) despite similar markers of PE severity. PERT recommendations were similar before and during the pandemic; anticoagulation was most recommended (89.5% vs. 86.4%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.70). During the pandemic, those with PERT activations were more likely to be female (63.6% vs. 31.7%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.01), have a history of DVT/PE (22.7% vs. 1.7%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.01), and to be SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative (68.2% vs. 38.3% pâ€‰=â€‰0.02). PERT activation during the pandemic is associated with decreased length of stay (7.7â€‰Â±â€‰7.7 vs. 13.2â€‰Â±â€‰12.7Â days, pâ€‰=â€‰0.02). PERT utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic and its activation was associated with different biases. PERT recommendations and outcomes were similar before and during the pandemic, and led to decreased length of stay during the pandemic.
Evaluating time to treatment and in-hospital outcomes of pulmonary embolism response teams
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) have become increasingly popular at institutions around the country, although the evidence to support their efficacy is limited. PERTs are mechanisms for rapid involvement of a multidisciplinary team in the management of a time-sensitive condition with many treatment options. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 201 patients with PERT activations since inception, collecting data on demographics, time to treatment, treatment modality, and in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS:Massive pulmonary embolism accounted for 16 (8.7%) PERT activations. The majority of patients were treated without invasive intervention; 91.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.1%-95.7%) of patients received anticoagulation alone, 4.5% (95% CI, 0%-18.6%) had catheter-directed therapy (CDT), and 3.0% (95% CI, 0%-16.9%) had systemic administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The average time to intervention was 665Â minutes (95% CI, 249-1080Â minutes) for CDT and 22Â minutes (95% CI, 0-456Â minutes) for systemic TPA. The average time to anticoagulation was 2.3Â minutes (95% CI,Â 0-43Â minutes). There was a trend toward higher rates of cardiac events (odds ratio [OR], 12.68; 95% CI, 0.62-65.74) and death (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 0.28-5.18) among patients with massive PE. There was a higher rate of cardiac events (OR, 5.66; 95% CI, 1.34-23.83) among patients who received tPA or an invasive intervention. There was no difference in mortality rates of patients who underwent aggressive management compared with anticoagulation alone. CONCLUSIONS:A dedicated PERT results in efficient delivery of care and excellent outcomes, in part owing to the rapid (on average, 8Â minutes) time to initiation of a multidisciplinary discussion. Patients who ultimately underwent CDT had an interval of >10Â hours on average between diagnosis and CDT. This provisional or delayed approach to CDT in selected patients who were not improving with anticoagulation alone (and therefore had potential for higher net benefit from a procedure with its own inherent risks) may have resulted in a lower rate of CDT.
Novel Percutaneous Tracheostomy for Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19
BACKGROUND:COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic, with many patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Tracheostomy is not recommended by current guidelines as it is considered a super-spreading event due to aerosolization that unduly risks healthcare workers. METHODS:Patients with severe COVID-19 that were on mechanical ventilation â‰¥ 5 days were evaluated for percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. We developed a novel percutaneous tracheostomy technique that placed the bronchoscope alongside the endotracheal tube, not inside it. This improved visualization during the procedure and continued standard mechanical ventilation after positioning the inflated endotracheal tube cuff in the distal trachea. This technique offers a significant mitigation for the risk of virus aerosolization during the procedure. RESULTS:From March 10 to April 15, 2020, 270 patients with COVID-19 required invasive mechanical ventilation at New York University Langone Health Manhattan's campus of which 98 patients underwent percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. The mean time from intubation to the procedure was 10.6 days (SD Â±5 days). Currently, thirty-two (33%) patients do not require mechanical ventilatory support, 19 (19%) have their tracheostomy tube downsized and 8 (8%) were decannulated. Forty (41%) patients remain on full ventilator support, while 19 (19%) are weaning from mechanical ventilation. Seven (7%) died as result of respiratory and multiorgan failure. Tracheostomy related bleeding was the most common complication (5 patients). None of health care providers have developed symptoms or tested positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Our percutaneous tracheostomy technique appears to be safe and effective for COVID-19 patients and safe for healthcare workers.
Prevalence and Outcomes of D-Dimer Elevation in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19
OBJECTIVE:<0.001). Rates of adverse events increased with the magnitude of D-dimer elevation; individuals with presenting D-dimer >2000 ng/mL had the highest risk of critical illness (66%), thrombotic event (37.8%), acute kidney injury (58.3%), and death (47%). CONCLUSIONS:Abnormal D-dimer was frequently observed at admission with COVID-19 and was associated with higher incidence of critical illness, thrombotic events, acute kidney injury, and death. The optimal management of patients with elevated D-dimer in COVID-19 requires further study.
Therapeutic blockade of inflammation in severe COVID-19 infection with intravenous n-acetylcysteine
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency facilitates human coronavirus infection due to glutathione depletion. G6PD deficiency may especially predispose to hemolysis upon coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection when employing pro-oxidant therapy. However, glutathione depletion is reversible by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration. We describe a severe case of COVID-19 infection in a G6PD-deficient patient treated with hydroxychloroquine who benefited from intravenous (IV) NAC beyond reversal of hemolysis. NAC blocked hemolysis and elevation of liver enzymes, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin and allowed removal from respirator and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and full recovery of the G6PD-deficient patient. NAC was also administered to 9 additional respirator-dependent COVID-19-infected patients without G6PD deficiency. NAC elicited clinical improvement and markedly reduced CRP in all patients and ferritin in 9/10 patients. NAC mechanism of action may involve the blockade of viral infection and the ensuing cytokine storm that warrant follow-up confirmatory studies in the setting controlled clinical trials.