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Association of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status With Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapies After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Melmed, Kara R; Lewis, Ariane; Kuohn, Lindsey; Marmo, Joanna; Rossan-Raghunath, Nirmala; Torres, Jose; Muralidharan, Rajanandini; Lord, Aaron S; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) is an important social determinant of health (SDoH) that can affect clinical outcome. We hypothesize that SDoH, including nSES, contribute to differences in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies (WLSTs) and mortality in patients with ICH. METHODS:tests. We performed multivariable analysis using backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS:≤ 0.01 for both). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and clinical severity scores, patients who lived in zip codes with high-income levels were more likely to have WLST (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.29-2.74) and mortality before discharge (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.06-2.13). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:SDoH, including nSES, are associated with WLST after ICH. This has important implications for the care and management of patients with ICH.
PMID: 38237088
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 5624412

Use of Carotid Web Angioarchitecture for Stroke Risk Assessment

von Oiste, Grace G; Sangwon, Karl L; Chung, Charlotte; Narayan, Vinayak; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Rutledge, Caleb; Nelson, Peter Kim; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose L; Rostanski, Sara K; Zhang, Cen; Yaghi, Shadi; Riina, Howard; Oermann, Eric K; Nossek, Erez
OBJECTIVE:To examine the usefulness of carotid web (CW), carotid bifurcation and their combined angioarchitectural measurements in assessing stroke risk. METHODS:Anatomic data on the internal carotid artery (ICA), common carotid artery (CCA), and the CW were gathered as part of a retrospective study from symptomatic (stroke) and asymptomatic (nonstroke) patients with CW. We built a model of stroke risk using principal-component analysis, Firth regression trained with 5-fold cross-validation, and heuristic binary cutoffs based on the Minimal Description Length principle. RESULTS:The study included 22 patients, with a mean age of 55.9 ± 12.8 years; 72.9% were female. Eleven patients experienced an ischemic stroke. The first 2 principal components distinguished between patients with stroke and patients without stroke. The model showed that ICA-pouch tip angle (P = 0.036), CCA-pouch tip angle (P = 0.036), ICA web-pouch angle (P = 0.036), and CCA web-pouch angle (P = 0.036) are the most important features associated with stroke risk. Conversely, CCA and ICA anatomy (diameter and angle) were not found to be risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study shows that using data from computed tomography angiography, carotid bifurcation, and CW angioarchitecture may be used to assess stroke risk, allowing physicians to tailor care for each patient according to risk stratification.
PMID: 38006939
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5617512

Factors Associated With Anxiety After Hemorrhagic Stroke

Olivera, Anlys; Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:A significant number of patients develop anxiety after stroke. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for anxiety after hemorrhagic stroke that may facilitate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients admitted between January 2015 and February 2021 with nontraumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral [ICH] or subarachnoid [SAH] hemorrhage) were assessed telephonically 3 and 12 months after stroke with the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Anxiety Short Form to evaluate the relationships between poststroke anxiety (T score >50) and preclinical social and neuropsychiatric history, systemic and neurological illness severity, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of 71 patients who completed the 3-month assessment, 28 (39%) had anxiety. There was a difference in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission between patients with anxiety (median=14, interquartile range [IQR]=12-15) and those without anxiety (median=15, IQR=14-15) (p=0.034), and the incidence of anxiety was higher among patients with ICH (50%) than among those with SAH (20%) (p=0.021). Among patients with ICH, anxiety was associated with larger median ICH volume (25 cc [IQR=8-46] versus 8 cc [IQR=3-13], p=0.021) and higher median ICH score (2 [IQR=1-3] versus 1 [IQR=0-1], p=0.037). On multivariable analysis with GCS score, hemorrhage type, and neuropsychiatric history, only hemorrhage type remained significant (odds ratio=3.77, 95% CI=1.19-12.05, p=0.024). Of the 39 patients who completed the 12-month assessment, 12 (31%) had anxiety, and there was a difference in mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores between patients with (5 [IQR=3-12]) and without (2 [IQR=0-4]) anxiety (p=0.045). There was fair agreement (κ=0.38) between the presence of anxiety at 3 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Hemorrhage characteristics and factors assessed with neurological examination on admission are associated with the development of poststroke anxiety.
PMID: 37667629
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5626372

Acetazolamide-augmented BOLD MRI to Assess Whole-Brain Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Chronic Steno-occlusive Disease Using Principal Component Analysis

Dogra, Siddhant; Wang, Xiuyuan; Gupta, Alejandro; Veraart, Jelle; Ishida, Koto; Qiu, Deqiang; Dehkharghani, Seena
Background Exhaustion of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) portends increased stroke risk. Acetazolamide-augmented blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI has been used to estimate CVR, but low signal-to-noise conditions relegate its use to terminal CVR (CVRend) measurements that neglect dynamic features of CVR. Purpose To demonstrate comprehensive characterization of acetazolamide-augmented BOLD MRI response in chronic steno-occlusive disease using a computational framework to precondition signal time courses for dynamic whole-brain CVR analysis. Materials and Methods This study focused on retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with unilateral chronic steno-occlusive disease who underwent acetazolamide-augmented BOLD imaging for recurrent minor stroke or transient ischemic attack at an academic medical center between May 2017 and October 2020. A custom principal component analysis-based denoising pipeline was used to correct spatially varying non-signal-bearing contributions obtained by a local principal component analysis of the MRI time series. Standard voxelwise CVRend maps representing terminal responses were produced and compared with maximal CVR (CVRmax) as isolated from binned (per-repetition time) denoised BOLD time course. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare CVRmax and CVRend in healthy and diseased hemispheres. Results A total of 23 patients (median age, 51 years; IQR, 42-61, 13 men) who underwent 32 BOLD examinations were included. Processed MRI data showed twofold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, allowing improved isolation of dynamic characteristics in signal time course for sliding window CVRmax analysis to the level of each BOLD repetition time (approximately 2 seconds). Mean CVRmax was significantly higher than mean CVRend in diseased (5.2% vs 3.8%, P < .01) and healthy (5.5% vs 4.0%, P < .01) hemispheres. Several distinct time-signal signatures were observed, including nonresponsive; delayed/blunted; brisk; and occasionally nonmonotonic time courses with paradoxical features in normal and abnormal tissues (ie, steal and reverse-steal patterns). Conclusion A principal component analysis-based computational framework for analysis of acetazolamide-augmented BOLD imaging can be used to measure unsustained CVRmax through twofold improvements in signal-to-noise ratio. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article.
PMID: 36916889
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5464762

Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with post-thrombectomy mortality in acute stroke

Irvine, Hannah; Krieger, Penina; Melmed, Kara R; Torres, Jose; Croll, Leah; Zhao, Amanda; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVE:We explored the relationship between markers of infection and inflammation and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy. METHODS:We performed retrospective chart review of stroke patients who underwent thrombectomy at two tertiary academic centers between December 2018 and November 2020. Associations between discharge mortality, WBC count, neutrophil percentage, fever, culture data, and antibiotic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with multivariable analysis. Analyses were repeated excluding COVID-positive patients. RESULTS:Of 248 patients who underwent thrombectomy, 41 (17 %) died prior to discharge. Mortality was associated with admission WBC count (11 [8-14] vs. 9 [7-12], p = 0.0093), admission neutrophil percentage (78 % ± 11 vs. 71 % ± 14, p = 0.0003), peak WBC count (17 [13-22] vs. 12 [9-15], p < 0.0001), fever (71 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001), positive culture (44 % vs. 15 %, p < 0.0001), and days treated with antibiotics (3 [1-7] vs. 1 [0-4], p < 0.0001). After controlling for age, admission NIHSS and post-thrombectomy ASPECTS score, mortality was associated with admission WBC count (OR 13, CI 1.32-142, p = 0.027), neutrophil percentage (OR 1.03, CI 1.0-1.07, p = 0.045), peak WBC count (OR 301, CI 24-5008, p < 0.0001), fever (OR 24.2, CI 1.77-332, p < 0.0001), and positive cultures (OR 4.24, CI 1.87-9.62, p = 0.0006). After excluding COVID-positive patients (n = 14), peak WBC count, fever and positive culture remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with discharge mortality after thrombectomy. Further study is warranted to investigate the causal relationship of these markers with clinical outcome.
PMID: 36272394
ISSN: 1872-6968
CID: 5359072

Pre-admission antithrombotic use is associated with 3-month mRS score after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Krieger, Penina; Melmed, Kara R; Torres, Jose; Zhao, Amanda; Croll, Leah; Irvine, Hannah; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
In patients who undergo thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic (anticoagulation or antiplatelet) use and both radiographic and functional outcome is not well understood. We sought to explore the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use in patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. Analyses were performed using analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-squared tests. Of 234 patients in the analysis cohort, 65 (28%) were on anticoagulation, 64 (27%) were on antiplatelet, and 105 (45%) with no antithrombotic use pre-admission. 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3-6 was associated with pre-admission antithrombotic use (71% anticoagulation vs. 77% antiplatelet vs. 56% no antithrombotic, p = 0.04). There was no relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use and Thrombolysis in Cerebral Iinfarction (TICI) score, post-procedure Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) score, rate of hemorrhagic conversion, length of hospital admission, discharge NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), discharge mRS score, or mortality. When initial NIHSS score, post-procedure ASPECTS score, and age at admission were included in multivariate analysis, pre-admission antithrombotic use was still significantly associated with a 3-month mRS score of 3-6 (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.03-5.54, p = 0.04). In this cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy, pre-admission antithrombotic use was associated with 3-month mRS score, but no other measures of radiographic or functional outcome. Further research is needed on the relationship between use of specific anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents and outcome after acute ischemic stroke, but moreover, improve stroke prevention.
PMID: 35864280
ISSN: 1573-742x
CID: 5279342

Social Determinants of Health Attenuate the Relationship Between Race and Ethnicity and White Matter Hyperintensity Severity but not Microbleed Presence in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Bauman, Kristie M; Yaghi, Shadi; Lewis, Ariane; Agarwal, Shashank; Changa, Abhinav; Dogra, Siddhant; Litao, Miguel; Sanger, Matthew; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Czeisler, Barry; Torres, Jose; Dehkharghani, Seena; Frontera, Jennifer A; Melmed, Kara R
BACKGROUND:The association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. We hypothesized that social determinants of health (SDOHs) mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and microbleeds in patients with ICH. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with ICH at two tertiary care hospitals between 2013 and 2020 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of microbleeds and WMH severity (defined by the Fazekas scale; moderate to severe WMH defined as Fazekas scores 3-6). We assessed for associations between sex, race and ethnicity, employment status, median household income, education level, insurance status, and imaging biomarkers of microvascular disease. A mediation analysis was used to investigate the influence of SDOHs on the associations between race and imaging features. We assessed the relationship of all variables with discharge outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 233 patients (mean age 62 [SD 16]; 48% female) with ICH. Of these, 19% were Black non-Hispanic, 32% had a high school education or less, 21% required an interpreter, 11% were unemployed, and 6% were uninsured. Moderate to severe WMH, identified in 114 (50%) patients, was associated with age, Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity, highest level of education, insurance status, and history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes (p < 0.05). In the mediation analysis, the proportion of the association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and the Fazekas score that was mediated by highest level of education was 65%. Microbleeds, present in 130 (57%) patients, was associated with age, highest level of education, and history of diabetes or hypertension (p < 0.05). Age, highest level of education, insurance status, and employment status were associated with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6, but race and ethnicity was not. CONCLUSIONS:The association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and moderate to severe WMH lost significance after we adjusted for highest level of education, suggesting that SDOHs may mediate the association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease.
PMID: 34918215
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 5084672

Psychological Outcome after Hemorrhagic Stroke is Related to Functional Status

Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Olivera, Anlys; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:To identify opportunities to improve morbidity after hemorrhagic stroke, it is imperative to understand factors that are related to psychological outcome. DESIGN/METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively identified patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) between January 2015 and February 2021 who were alive 3-months after discharge and telephonically assessed 1) psychological outcome using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol, fatigue and sleep disturbance inventories and 2) functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index. We also identified discharge destination for all patients. We then evaluated the relationship between abnormal psychological outcomes (T-score >50) and discharge destination other than home, poor 3-month mRS score defined as 3-5 and poor 3-month Barthel Index defined as <100. RESULTS:73 patients were included; 41 (56%) had an abnormal psychological outcome on at least one inventory. There were 41 (56%) patients discharged to a destination other than home, 44 (63%) with poor mRS score and 28 (39%) with poor Barthel Index. Anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol and sleep disturbance were all associated with a destination other than home, poor mRS score, and poor Barthel Index (all p<0.05). Fatigue was related to poor mRS score and poor Barthel Index (p=0.005 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Multiple psychological outcomes 3-months after hemorrhagic stroke are related to functional status. Interventions to improve psychological outcome and reduce morbidity in patients with poor functional status should be explored by the interdisciplinary team.
PMID: 35594604
ISSN: 1532-8511
CID: 5247722

Tachycardia is associated with mortality and functional outcome after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Krieger, Penina; Zhao, Amanda; Croll, Leah; Irvine, Hannah; Torres, Jose; Melmed, Kara R; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:The relationship between cardiac function and mortality after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is not well elucidated. METHODS:We analyzed the relationship between cardiac function and mortality prior to discharge in a cohort of patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two large medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. All analyses were performed using Welch's two sample t-test and logistic regression accounting for age, initial NIHSS and post-procedure ASPECTS score, where OR is for each unit increase in the respective variables. RESULTS:Of 248 patients, 41 (16.5%) died prior to discharge. Mortality was significantly associated with higher initial heart rate (HR; 89 ± 19 bpm vs 80 ± 18 bpm, p = 0.004) and higher maximum HR over entire admission (137 ± 26 bpm vs 114 ± 25 bpm, p < 0.001). Mortality was also associated with presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (63% vs 29%, p < 0.001). When age, initial NIHSS score, and post-procedure ASPECTS score were included in multivariate analysis, there was still a significant relationship between mortality and initial HR (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01- 1.05, p = 0.02), highest HR over the entire admission (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001), and presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.66-8.87, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Tachycardia is associated with mortality in patients who undergo thrombectomy. Further investigation is needed to determine whether this risk is modifiable.
PMID: 35367848
ISSN: 1532-8511
CID: 5192412

Hemorrhagic Conversion Of Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With Hematoma Expansion [Meeting Abstract]

Palaychuk, Natalie; Changa, Abhinav; Dogra, Siddhant; Wei, Jason; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Czeisler, Barry M.; Torres, Jose L.; Frontera, Jennifer; Dehkharghani, Seena; Melmed, Kara R.
ISSN: 0039-2499
CID: 5243802