Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with post-thrombectomy mortality in acute stroke
OBJECTIVE:We explored the relationship between markers of infection and inflammation and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy. METHODS:We performed retrospective chart review of stroke patients who underwent thrombectomy at two tertiary academic centers between December 2018 and November 2020. Associations between discharge mortality, WBC count, neutrophil percentage, fever, culture data, and antibiotic treatment were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Student's t-test, and Fisher's exact test. Independent predictors of mortality were identified with multivariable analysis. Analyses were repeated excluding COVID-positive patients. RESULTS:Of 248 patients who underwent thrombectomy, 41 (17 %) died prior to discharge. Mortality was associated with admission WBC count (11 [8-14] vs. 9 [7-12], pÂ =Â 0.0093), admission neutrophil percentage (78 %Â Â±Â 11 vs. 71 %Â Â±Â 14, pÂ =Â 0.0003), peak WBC count (17 [13-22] vs. 12 [9-15], pÂ <Â 0.0001), fever (71 % vs. 27 %, pÂ <Â 0.0001), positive culture (44 % vs. 15 %, pÂ <Â 0.0001), and days treated with antibiotics (3 [1-7] vs. 1 [0-4], pÂ <Â 0.0001). After controlling for age, admission NIHSS and post-thrombectomy ASPECTS score, mortality was associated with admission WBC count (OR 13, CI 1.32-142, pÂ =Â 0.027), neutrophil percentage (OR 1.03, CI 1.0-1.07, pÂ =Â 0.045), peak WBC count (OR 301, CI 24-5008, pÂ <Â 0.0001), fever (OR 24.2, CI 1.77-332, pÂ <Â 0.0001), and positive cultures (OR 4.24, CI 1.87-9.62, pÂ =Â 0.0006). After excluding COVID-positive patients (nÂ =Â 14), peak WBC count, fever and positive culture remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Markers of infection and inflammation are associated with discharge mortality after thrombectomy. Further study is warranted to investigate the causal relationship of these markers with clinical outcome.
Pre-admission antithrombotic use is associated with 3-month mRS score after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke
In patients who undergo thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic (anticoagulation or antiplatelet) use and both radiographic and functional outcome is not well understood. We sought to explore the relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use in patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. Analyses were performed using analysis of variance and Pearson's chi-squared tests. Of 234 patients in the analysis cohort, 65 (28%) were on anticoagulation, 64 (27%) were on antiplatelet, and 105 (45%) with no antithrombotic use pre-admission. 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 3-6 was associated with pre-admission antithrombotic use (71% anticoagulation vs. 77% antiplatelet vs. 56% no antithrombotic, pâ€‰=â€‰0.04). There was no relationship between pre-admission antithrombotic use and Thrombolysis in Cerebral Iinfarction (TICI) score, post-procedure Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) score, rate of hemorrhagic conversion, length of hospital admission, discharge NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), discharge mRS score, or mortality. When initial NIHSS score, post-procedure ASPECTS score, and age at admission were included in multivariate analysis, pre-admission antithrombotic use was still significantly associated with a 3-month mRS score of 3-6 (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.03-5.54, pâ€‰=â€‰0.04). In this cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent thrombectomy, pre-admission antithrombotic use was associated with 3-month mRS score, but no other measures of radiographic or functional outcome. Further research is needed on the relationship between use of specific anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents and outcome after acute ischemic stroke, but moreover, improve stroke prevention.
Social Determinants of Health Attenuate the Relationship Between Race and Ethnicity and White Matter Hyperintensity Severity but not Microbleed Presence in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
BACKGROUND:The association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. We hypothesized that social determinants of health (SDOHs) mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and microbleeds in patients with ICH. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with ICH at two tertiary care hospitals between 2013 and 2020 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of microbleeds and WMH severity (defined by the Fazekas scale; moderate to severe WMH defined as Fazekas scores 3-6). We assessed for associations between sex, race and ethnicity, employment status, median household income, education level, insurance status, and imaging biomarkers of microvascular disease. A mediation analysis was used to investigate the influence of SDOHs on the associations between race and imaging features. We assessed the relationship of all variables with discharge outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 233 patients (mean age 62 [SD 16]; 48% female) with ICH. Of these, 19% were Black non-Hispanic, 32% had a high school education or less, 21% required an interpreter, 11% were unemployed, and 6% were uninsured. Moderate to severe WMH, identified in 114 (50%) patients, was associated with age, Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity, highest level of education, insurance status, and history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). In the mediation analysis, the proportion of the association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and the Fazekas score that was mediated by highest level of education was 65%. Microbleeds, present in 130 (57%) patients, was associated with age, highest level of education, and history of diabetes or hypertension (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Age, highest level of education, insurance status, and employment status were associated with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6, but race and ethnicity was not. CONCLUSIONS:The association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and moderate to severe WMH lost significance after we adjusted for highest level of education, suggesting that SDOHs may mediate the association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease.
Psychological Outcome after Hemorrhagic Stroke is Related to Functional Status
BACKGROUND:To identify opportunities to improve morbidity after hemorrhagic stroke, it is imperative to understand factors that are related to psychological outcome. DESIGN/METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively identified patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) between January 2015 and February 2021 who were alive 3-months after discharge and telephonically assessed 1) psychological outcome using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol, fatigue and sleep disturbance inventories and 2) functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index. We also identified discharge destination for all patients. We then evaluated the relationship between abnormal psychological outcomes (T-score >50) and discharge destination other than home, poor 3-month mRS score defined as 3-5 and poor 3-month Barthel Index defined as <100. RESULTS:73 patients were included; 41 (56%) had an abnormal psychological outcome on at least one inventory. There were 41 (56%) patients discharged to a destination other than home, 44 (63%) with poor mRS score and 28 (39%) with poor Barthel Index. Anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol and sleep disturbance were all associated with a destination other than home, poor mRS score, and poor Barthel Index (all p<0.05). Fatigue was related to poor mRS score and poor Barthel Index (p=0.005 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Multiple psychological outcomes 3-months after hemorrhagic stroke are related to functional status. Interventions to improve psychological outcome and reduce morbidity in patients with poor functional status should be explored by the interdisciplinary team.
Tachycardia is associated with mortality and functional outcome after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke
BACKGROUND:The relationship between cardiac function and mortality after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is not well elucidated. METHODS:We analyzed the relationship between cardiac function and mortality prior to discharge in a cohort of patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke at two large medical centers in New York City between December 2018 and November 2020. All analyses were performed using Welch's two sample t-test and logistic regression accounting for age, initial NIHSS and post-procedure ASPECTS score, where OR is for each unit increase in the respective variables. RESULTS:Of 248 patients, 41 (16.5%) died prior to discharge. Mortality was significantly associated with higher initial heart rate (HR; 89 Â± 19 bpm vs 80 Â± 18 bpm, pÂ =Â 0.004) and higher maximum HR over entire admission (137 Â± 26 bpm vs 114 Â± 25 bpm, p < 0.001). Mortality was also associated with presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (63% vs 29%, p < 0.001). When age, initial NIHSS score, and post-procedure ASPECTS score were included in multivariate analysis, there was still a significant relationship between mortality and initial HR (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01- 1.05, pÂ =Â 0.02), highest HR over the entire admission (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001), and presence of NSTEMI/STEMI (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.66-8.87, pÂ =Â 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:Tachycardia is associated with mortality in patients who undergo thrombectomy. Further investigation is needed to determine whether this risk is modifiable.
Hemorrhagic Conversion Of Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With Hematoma Expansion [Meeting Abstract]
Central Retinal Artery Visualization with Cone-Beam CT Angiography
Background There are multiple tools available to visualize the retinal and choroidal vasculature of the posterior globe. However, there are currently no reliable in vivo imaging techniques that can visualize the entire retrobulbar course of the retinal and ciliary vessels. Purpose To identify and characterize the central retinal artery (CRA) using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained as part of diagnostic cerebral angiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients with catheter DSA performed between October 2019 and October 2020 were included if CBCT angiography included the orbit in the field of view. The CBCT angiography data sets were postprocessed with a small field-of-view volume centered in the posterior globe to a maximum resolution of 0.2 mm. The following were evaluated: CRA origin, CRA course, CRA point of penetration into the optic nerve sheath, bifurcation of the CRA at the papilla, visualization of anatomic variants, and visualization of the central retinal vein. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Twenty-one patients with 24 visualized orbits were included in the analysis (mean age, 55 years Â± 15; 14 women). Indications for angiography were as follows: diagnostic angiography (n = 8), aneurysm treatment (n = 6), or other (n = 7). The CRA was identified in all orbits; the origin, course, point of penetration of the CRA into the optic nerve sheath, and termination in the papilla were visualized in all orbits. The average length of the intraneural segment was 10.6 mm (range, 7-18 mm). The central retinal vein was identified in six of 24 orbits. Conclusion Cone-beam CT, performed during diagnostic angiography, consistently demonstrated the in vivo central retinal artery, demonstrating excellent potential for multiple diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Â© RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Biomarkers of Coagulation and Inflammation in COVID-19-Associated Ischemic Stroke
[Figure: see text].
Thrombosis at Hospital Presentation in Patients with and without COVID-19
OBJECTIVE:To better characterize COVID-19 patients most at risk for severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with an arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. There was a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in STEMI (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%), and an increase in the proportion of patients with VTE (29.4% to 52.7%). COVID-associated thrombosis were younger (58 years vs. 64 years, p=0.043), trended to be less frequently female (31.3% vs. 43.9%, p =0.16), but there was no difference body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19-associted thrombosis was correlated with a higher mortality (15.2% vs. 4.3%, p=0.016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-associated thrombosis compared to regular thrombosis had significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function tests, d-dimer, c-related protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels. CONCLUSIONS:Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization have an increased mortality over non-COVID-19 outpatients who develop thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory markers, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation may be a target to reduce the risk of or aid in the treatment of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role immunothrombosis maybe playing in COVID.
New Focus on Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke
BACKGROUND:Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of large-scale clinical trials have helped expand the toolkit for emergency management of acute ischemic stroke. This article is intended to be an up-to-date resource to aid nonstroke specialist neurology providers and ophthalmologists in identifying situations and patient populations in which urgent stroke evaluation should be completed with options for emergent reperfusion therapy considered. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION/METHODS:The literature forming the foundation of the guidelines for early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke was reviewed, annotated, and summarized. RESULTS:Data from both initial and follow-up trials investigating the benefits and indications for use of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular intervention for stroke are reviewed systematically, with an emphasis on new updates to qualifying patient populations and time periods for treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Recent studies underscore the conclusion that timely reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke is the most effective available treatment and that there are a growing number of new scenarios and patients for which interventions maybe applied.