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SARS-CoV-2 inflammation durably imprints memory CD4 T cells

Gray-Gaillard, Sophie L; Solis, Sabrina M; Chen, Han M; Monteiro, Clarice; Ciabattoni, Grace; Samanovic, Marie I; Cornelius, Amber R; Williams, Tijaana; Geesey, Emilie; Rodriguez, Miguel; Ortigoza, Mila Brum; Ivanova, Ellie N; Koralov, Sergei B; Mulligan, Mark J; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat
Memory CD4 T cells are critical to human immunity, yet it is unclear whether viral inflammation during memory formation has long-term consequences. Here, we compared transcriptional and epigenetic landscapes of Spike (S)-specific memory CD4 T cells in 24 individuals whose first exposure to S was via SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination. Nearly 2 years after memory formation, S-specific CD4 T cells established by infection remained enriched for transcripts related to cytotoxicity and for interferon-stimulated genes, likely because of a chromatin accessibility landscape altered by inflammation. Moreover, S-specific CD4 T cells primed by infection had reduced proliferative capacity in vitro relative to vaccine-primed cells. Furthermore, the transcriptional state of S-specific memory CD4 T cells was minimally altered by booster immunization and/or breakthrough infection. Thus, infection-associated inflammation durably imprints CD4 T cell memory, which affects the function of these cells and may have consequences for long-term immunity.
PMID: 38905326
ISSN: 2470-9468
CID: 5672432


Yang, Katharine Lu; Mullins, Briana J; Lejeune, Alannah; Ivanova, Ellie; Shin, Jong; Bajwa, Sofia; Possemato, Richard; Cadwell, Ken; Scher, Jose U; Koralov, Sergei B
OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) on arthritic bone remodeling. METHODS:CD4Cre mice, with SCFA supplemented water. We also performed in vitro osteoclast differentiation assays in the presence of serum-level SCFAs to evaluate the direct impact of these microbial metabolites on maturation and function of osteoclasts. We further characterized the molecular mechanism of SCFAs by transcriptional analysis. RESULTS:CD4Cre mice. Further interrogation revealed that bone marrow derived OCPs from diseased mice expressed a higher level of SCFA receptors than that of control mice and that the progenitor cells in the bone marrow of SCFA-treated mice presented a modified transcriptomic landscape, suggesting a direct impact of SCFAs on bone marrow progenitors in the context of osteoporosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated how gut microbiota-derived SCFAs can regulate distal pathology, i.e., osteoporosis, and identified a potential therapeutic option for restoring bone density in rheumatic disease, further highlighting the critical role of the gut-bone axis in these disorders.
PMID: 37994265
ISSN: 2326-5205
CID: 5608662

Glutamine antagonist DRP-104 suppresses tumor growth and enhances response to checkpoint blockade in KEAP1 mutant lung cancer

Pillai, Ray; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Hao, Yuan; New, Connie; Blum, Jenna L E; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Huang, Shih Ming; Bahamon, Christian; Wu, Warren L; Karadal-Ferrena, Burcu; Herrera, Alberto; Ivanova, Ellie; Cross, Michael; Bossowski, Jozef P; Ding, Hongyu; Hayashi, Makiko; Rajalingam, Sahith; Karakousi, Triantafyllia; Sayin, Volkan I; Khanna, Kamal M; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Wild, Robert; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Poirier, John T; Rudin, Charles M; Davidson, Shawn M; Koralov, Sergei B; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales
Loss-of-function mutations in KEAP1 frequently occur in lung cancer and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to standard of care treatment, highlighting the need for the development of targeted therapies. We previously showed that KEAP1 mutant tumors consume glutamine to support the metabolic rewiring associated with NRF2-dependent antioxidant production. Here, using preclinical patient-derived xenograft models and antigenic orthotopic lung cancer models, we show that the glutamine antagonist prodrug DRP-104 impairs the growth of KEAP1 mutant tumors. We find that DRP-104 suppresses KEAP1 mutant tumors by inhibiting glutamine-dependent nucleotide synthesis and promoting antitumor T cell responses. Using multimodal single-cell sequencing and ex vivo functional assays, we demonstrate that DRP-104 reverses T cell exhaustion, decreases Tregs, and enhances the function of CD4 and CD8 T cells, culminating in an improved response to anti-PD1 therapy. Our preclinical findings provide compelling evidence that DRP-104, currently in clinical trials, offers a promising therapeutic approach for treating patients with KEAP1 mutant lung cancer.
PMID: 38536921
ISSN: 2375-2548
CID: 5644942

mRNA COVID-19 vaccine elicits potent adaptive immune response without the acute inflammation of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ivanova, Ellie N.; Shwetar, Jasmine; Devlin, Joseph C.; Buus, Terkild B.; Gray-Gaillard, Sophie; Koide, Akiko; Cornelius, Amber; Samanovic, Marie I.; Herrera, Alberto; Mimitou, Eleni P.; Zhang, Chenzhen; Karmacharya, Trishala; Desvignes, Ludovic; Ødum, Niels; Smibert, Peter; Ulrich, Robert J.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Koide, Shohei; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Herati, Ramin S.; Koralov, Sergei B.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. Our study presents a comprehensive multimodal single-cell analysis of blood from COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and booster. We profiled immune responses via transcriptional analysis and lymphocyte repertoire reconstruction. COVID-19 patients displayed an enhanced interferon signature and cytotoxic gene upregulation, absent in vaccine recipients. B and T cell repertoire analysis revealed clonal expansion among effector cells in COVID-19 patients and memory cells in vaccine recipients. Furthermore, while clonal αβ T cell responses were observed in both COVID-19 patients and vaccine recipients, expansion of clonal γδ T cells was found only in infected individuals. Our dataset enables side-by-side comparison of immune responses to infection versus vaccination, including clonal B and T cell responses. Our comparative analysis shows that vaccination induces a robust, durable clonal B and T cell responses, without the severe inflammation associated with infection.
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 5620862

KEAP1 mutation in lung adenocarcinoma promotes immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance

Zavitsanou, Anastasia-Maria; Pillai, Ray; Hao, Yuan; Wu, Warren L; Bartnicki, Eric; Karakousi, Triantafyllia; Rajalingam, Sahith; Herrera, Alberto; Karatza, Angeliki; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Solis, Sabrina; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Yeaton, Anna H; Ivanova, Ellie; Wohlhieter, Corrin A; Buus, Terkild B; Hayashi, Makiko; Karadal-Ferrena, Burcu; Pass, Harvey I; Poirier, John T; Rudin, Charles M; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Moreira, Andre L; Khanna, Kamal M; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Koralov, Sergei B
Lung cancer treatment has benefited greatly through advancements in immunotherapies. However, immunotherapy often fails in patients with specific mutations like KEAP1, which are frequently found in lung adenocarcinoma. We established an antigenic lung cancer model and used it to explore how Keap1 mutations remodel the tumor immune microenvironment. Using single-cell technology and depletion studies, we demonstrate that Keap1-mutant tumors diminish dendritic cell and T cell responses driving immunotherapy resistance. This observation was corroborated in patient samples. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene targeting revealed that hyperactivation of the NRF2 antioxidant pathway is responsible for diminished immune responses in Keap1-mutant tumors. Importantly, we demonstrate that combining glutaminase inhibition with immune checkpoint blockade can reverse immunosuppression, making Keap1-mutant tumors susceptible to immunotherapy. Our study provides new insight into the role of KEAP1 mutations in immune evasion, paving the way for novel immune-based therapeutic strategies for KEAP1-mutant cancers.
PMID: 37889752
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 5590262

A comparative study of in vitro air-liquid interface culture models of the human airway epithelium evaluating cellular heterogeneity and gene expression at single cell resolution

Prescott, Rachel A; Pankow, Alec P; de Vries, Maren; Crosse, Keaton M; Patel, Roosheel S; Alu, Mark; Loomis, Cynthia; Torres, Victor; Koralov, Sergei; Ivanova, Ellie; Dittmann, Meike; Rosenberg, Brad R
BACKGROUND:The airway epithelium is composed of diverse cell types with specialized functions that mediate homeostasis and protect against respiratory pathogens. Human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures at air-liquid interface are a physiologically relevant in vitro model of this heterogeneous tissue and have enabled numerous studies of airway disease. HAE cultures are classically derived from primary epithelial cells, the relatively limited passage capacity of which can limit experimental methods and study designs. BCi-NS1.1, a previously described and widely used basal cell line engineered to express hTERT, exhibits extended passage lifespan while retaining the capacity for differentiation to HAE. However, gene expression and innate immune function in BCi-NS1.1-derived versus primary-derived HAE cultures have not been fully characterized. METHODS:BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures (n = 3 independent differentiations) and primary-derived HAE cultures (n = 3 distinct donors) were characterized by immunofluorescence and single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq). Innate immune functions were evaluated in response to interferon stimulation and to infection with viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. RESULTS:We confirm at high resolution that BCi-NS1.1- and primary-derived HAE cultures are largely similar in morphology, cell type composition, and overall gene expression patterns. While we observed cell-type specific expression differences of several interferon stimulated genes in BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures, we did not observe significant differences in susceptibility to infection with influenza A virus and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results further support BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures as a valuable tool for the study of airway infectious disease.
PMID: 37635251
ISSN: 1465-993x
CID: 5606922

Discrete immune response signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination versus infection

Ivanova, Ellie N; Devlin, Joseph C; Buus, Terkild B; Koide, Akiko; Cornelius, Amber; Samanovic, Marie I; Herrera, Alberto; Zhang, Chenzhen; Desvignes, Ludovic; Odum, Niels; Ulrich, Robert; Mulligan, Mark J; Koide, Shohei; Ruggles, Kelly V; Herati, Ramin S; Koralov, Sergei B
Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. A number of studies have described immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, beyond antibody production, immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccine. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling of immune cells, coupled with reconstruction of the B and T cell antigen receptor rearrangement of individual lymphocytes, enabled us to characterize and compare the host responses to the virus and to defined viral antigens. While both infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges. In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients. Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects. Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells. Importantly, the divergence in immune subsets engaged, the transcriptional differences in key immune populations, and the differences in maturation of adaptive immune cells revealed by our analysis have far-ranging implications for immunity to this novel pathogen.
PMID: 33907755
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4852132

Molecularly distinct memory CD4+ T cells are induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and mRNA vaccination

Gray-Gaillard, Sophie L; Solis, Sabrina; Monteiro, Clarice; Chen, Han M; Ciabattoni, Grace; Samanovic, Marie I; Cornelius, Amber R; Williams, Tijaana; Geesey, Emilie; Rodriguez, Miguel; Ortigoza, Mila Brum; Ivanova, Ellie N; Koralov, Sergei B; Mulligan, Mark J; Herati, Ramin Sedaghat
UNLABELLED:Adaptive immune responses are induced by vaccination and infection, yet little is known about how CD4+ T cell memory differs between these two contexts. Notable differences in humoral and cellular immune responses to primary mRNA vaccination were observed and associated with prior COVID-19 history, including in the establishment and recall of Spike-specific CD4+ T cells. It was unclear whether CD4+ T cell memory established by infection or mRNA vaccination as the first exposure to Spike was qualitatively similar. To assess whether the mechanism of initial memory T cell priming affected subsequent responses to Spike protein, 14 people who were receiving a third mRNA vaccination, referenced here as the booster, were stratified based on whether the first exposure to Spike protein was by viral infection or immunization (infection-primed or vaccine-primed). Using multimodal scRNA-seq of activation-induced marker (AIM)-reactive Spike-specific CD4+ T cells, we identified 220 differentially expressed genes between infection- and vaccine-primed patients at the post-booster time point. Infection-primed participants had greater expression of genes related to cytotoxicity and interferon signaling. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed enrichment for Interferon Alpha, Interferon Gamma, and Inflammatory response gene sets in Spike-specific CD4+ T cells from infection-primed individuals, whereas Spike-specific CD4+ T cells from vaccine-primed individuals had strong enrichment for proliferative pathways by GSEA. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection in vaccine-primed participants resulted in subtle changes in the transcriptional landscape of Spike-specific memory CD4+ T cells relative to pre-breakthrough samples but did not recapitulate the transcriptional profile of infection-primed Spike-specific CD4+ T cells. Together, these data suggest that CD4+ T cell memory is durably imprinted by the inflammatory context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which has implications for personalization of vaccination based on prior infection history. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY/UNASSIGNED:SARS-CoV-2 infection and mRNA vaccination prime transcriptionally distinct CD4+ T cell memory landscapes which are sustained with subsequent doses of vaccine.
PMID: 36415470
ISSN: 2692-8205
CID: 5390872

Improving oligo-conjugated antibody signal in multimodal single-cell analysis

Buus, Terkild B; Herrera, Alberto; Ivanova, Ellie; Mimitou, Eleni; Cheng, Anthony; Herati, Ramin S; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Smibert, Peter; Odum, Niels; Koralov, Sergei B
Simultaneous measurement of surface proteins and gene expression within single cells using oligo-conjugated antibodies offers high-resolution snapshots of complex cell populations. Signal from oligo-conjugated antibodies is quantified by high-throughput sequencing and is highly scalable and sensitive. We investigated the response of oligo-conjugated antibodies towards four variables: concentration, staining volume, cell number at staining, and tissue. We find that staining with recommended antibody concentrations causes unnecessarily high background and amount of antibody used can be drastically reduced without loss of biological information. Reducing staining volume only affects antibodies targeting abundant epitopes used at low concentrations and is counteracted by reducing cell numbers. Adjusting concentrations increases signal, lowers background, and reduces costs. Background signal can account for a major fraction of total sequencing and is primarily derived from antibodies used at high concentrations. This study provides new insight into titration response and background of oligo-conjugated antibodies and offers concrete guidelines to improve such panels.
PMID: 33861199
ISSN: 2050-084x
CID: 4846362

A comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals characterizes 3CLpro inhibitor PF-00835231 as a potential new treatment for COVID-19

de Vries, Maren; Mohamed, Adil S; Prescott, Rachel A; Valero-Jimenez, Ana M; Desvignes, Ludovic; O'Connor, Rebecca; Steppan, Claire; Devlin, Joseph C; Ivanova, Ellie; Herrera, Alberto; Schinlever, Austin; Loose, Paige; Ruggles, Kelly; Koralov, Sergei B; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Binder, Joseph; Dittmann, Meike
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a dire need for novel effective antivirals to treat COVID-19, as the only approved direct-acting antiviral to date is remdesivir, targeting the viral polymerase complex. A potential alternate target in the viral life cycle is the main SARS-CoV-2 protease 3CLpro (Mpro). The drug candidate PF-00835231 is the active compound of the first anti-3CLpro regimen in clinical trials. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of PF-00835231, the pre-clinical 3CLpro inhibitor GC-376, and the polymerase inhibitor remdesivir, in alveolar basal epithelial cells modified to express ACE2 (A549+ACE2 cells). We find PF-00835231 with at least similar or higher potency than remdesivir or GC-376. A time-of-drug-addition approach delineates the timing of early SARS-CoV-2 life cycle steps in A549+ACE2 cells and validates PF-00835231's early time of action. In a model of the human polarized airway epithelium, both PF-00835231 and remdesivir potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations. Finally, we show that the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, which was previously suggested to diminish PF-00835231's efficacy based on experiments in monkey kidney Vero E6 cells, does not negatively impact PF-00835231 efficacy in either A549+ACE2 cells or human polarized airway epithelial cultures. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence for the potential of PF-00835231 as an effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral and addresses concerns that emerged based on prior studies in non-human in vitro models.Importance:The arsenal of SARS-CoV-2 specific antiviral drugs is extremely limited. Only one direct-acting antiviral drug is currently approved, the viral polymerase inhibitor remdesivir, and it has limited efficacy. Thus, there is a substantial need to develop additional antiviral compounds with minimal side effects and alternate viral targets. One such alternate target is its main protease, 3CLpro (Mpro), an essential component of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle processing the viral polyprotein into the components of the viral polymerase complex. In this study, we characterize a novel antiviral drug, PF-00835231, which is the active component of the first-in-class 3CLpro-targeting regimen in clinical trials. Using 3D in vitro models of the human airway epithelium, we demonstrate the antiviral potential of PF-00835231 for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2.
PMID: 33622961
ISSN: 1098-5514
CID: 4794542