Approach to patient with cough by American and Chinese respiratory specialist
Cough is a common pediatric condition. Acute cough is often considered to be self-limiting and not requiring clinical management. However, pediatric patients and their parents often seek remedies for an acute cough. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) specialists have been treating pediatric cough for millennia. Here we present a case of pediatric cough and the approaches taken to it by a Western and Chinese respiratory specialist. We conclude that TCM may provide important and useful insights into the treatment of such pediatric respiratory disease.
Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma associated with repaired congenital tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia [Case Report]
We report a 19-year-old man with pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who had a history of vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, and radial limb defects (VACTERL) association and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) + esophageal atresia (EA) repair as an infant. Children that undergo TEF + EA repair may have an increased risk for developing cancer as they reach adulthood.
Seroepidemiology of human bocavirus defined using recombinant virus-like particles
BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus for which seroepidemiology and antigenic properties remain undefined. METHODS: The HBoV VP2 gene, expressed from a baculovirus vector, produced virus-like particles (VLPs), which were used to raise rabbit anti-HBoV antisera and to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VLP-based ELISA was used to screen for HBoV-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in a convenience sample of 270 serum specimens, mostly from children, obtained at Yale-New Haven Hospital; 208 specimens were also screened for erythrovirus B19-specific antibodies by a B19 VLP-based ELISA. RESULTS: Immunofluorescence and ELISA showed that human parvoviruses HBoV and B19 are antigenically distinct. By the HBoV VLP-based ELISA, 91.8% and 63.6% of serum specimens from infants in the first and second months of life, respectively, were found to be seropositive, as were 45.4% from 3-month-old infants and 25.0% from 4-month-old infants. The percentages of HBoV-seropositive children increased to 40.7%-60.0% for children 5-47 months of age and to >85% for individuals >or=48 months old. However, the overall percentage of B19-seropositive individuals was <40.5% for all age groups screened. CONCLUSIONS: HBoV infection is common during childhood, but a minority of children and young adults screened have evidence of B19 infection.
Human bocavirus infection in young children in the United States: molecular epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of a newly emerging respiratory virus
BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus that was originally identified in the respiratory secretions of children with respiratory tract disease. To further investigate the epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of HBoV infection, we screened infants and children <2 years of age (hereafter referred to as "children") for HBoV. METHODS: Children for whom respiratory specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory tested negative for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses (types 1-3), influenza A and B viruses, and adenovirus, as well as asymptomatic children, underwent screening for HBoV by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Respiratory specimens were obtained from the children from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2004. RESULTS: Twenty-two (5.2%) of the 425 children who had a respiratory specimen submitted to the diagnostic laboratory and 0 of the 96 asymptomatic children were found to be positive for HBoV by PCR (P=.02). Fever, rhinorrhea, cough, and wheezing were observed in > or =50% of the HBoV-positive children. Of the 17 children who had chest radiography performed, 12 (70.6%) had abnormal findings. HBoV appeared to have a seasonal distribution. Nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the viral capsid protein (VP) 1/VP2 genes. Two distinct HBoV genotypes circulated during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: HBoV is circulating in the United States and is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children.