The Value of 3 Tesla Field Strength for Musculoskeletal MRI
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a careful negotiation between spatial, temporal, and contrast resolution, which builds the foundation for diagnostic performance and value. Many aspects of musculoskeletal MRI can improve the image quality and increase the acquisition speed; however, 3.0-T field strength has the highest impact within the current diagnostic range. In addition to the favorable attributes of 3.0-T field strength translating into high temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution, many 3.0-T MRI systems yield additional gains through high-performance gradients systems and radiofrequency pulse transmission technology, advanced multichannel receiver technology, and high-end surface coils. Compared with 1.5 T, 3.0-T MRI systems yield approximately 2-fold higher signal-to-noise ratios, enabling 4 times faster data acquisition or double the matrix size. Clinically, 3.0-T field strength translates into markedly higher scan efficiency, better image quality, more accurate visualization of small anatomic structures and abnormalities, and the ability to offer high-end applications, such as quantitative MRI and magnetic resonance neurography. Challenges of 3.0-T MRI include higher magnetic susceptibility, chemical shift, dielectric effects, and higher radiofrequency energy deposition, which can be managed successfully. The higher total cost of ownership of 3.0-T MRI systems can be offset by shorter musculoskeletal MRI examinations, higher-quality examinations, and utilization of advanced MRI techniques, which then can achieve higher gains and value than lower field systems. We provide a practice-focused review of the value of 3.0-T field strength for musculoskeletal MRI, practical solutions to challenges, and illustrations of a wide spectrum of gainful clinical applications.
3-T MRI of the Ankle Tendons and Ligaments
Ankle sprain is the most common injury in athletic populations. Ligament and tendon pathologies of the ankle are common, ranging from traumatic injuries to degeneration leading to chronic pain and acquired foot deformities. MRI is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate tendon and ligament pathology of the ankle, specifically derangements of tendons and ligaments. 3-T MRI offers improved imaging characteristics relative to 1.5-T MRI, allowing for better delineation of anatomic detail and pathology. This article provides a review of the anatomy and common pathologies of the ankle ligaments and tendons using high-resolution 3-T MRI.
Imaging Spectrum of Calvarial Abnormalities
Calvarial abnormalities are usually discovered incidentally on radiologic studies or less commonly manifest with symptoms. This narrative review describes the imaging spectrum of the abnormal calvaria. The extent, multiplicity, and other imaging features of calvarial abnormalities can be combined with the clinical information to establish a final diagnosis or at least narrow the differential considerations. Prior trauma (congenital depression, leptomeningeal cysts, posttraumatic osteolysis), surgical intervention (flap osteonecrosis and burr holes), infection, and inflammatory processes (sarcoidosis) can result in focal bone loss, which may also be seen with idiopathic disorders without (bilateral parietal thinning and Gorham disease) or with (Parry-Romberg syndrome) atrophy of the overlying soft tissues. Anatomic variants (arachnoid granulations, venous lakes, parietal foramina) and certain congenital lesions (epidermoid and dermoid cysts, atretic encephalocele, sinus pericranii, and aplasia cutis congenita) manifest as solitary lytic lesions. Other congenital entities (lacunar skull and dysplasia) display a diffuse pattern of skull involvement. Several benign and malignant primary bone tumors involve the calvaria and manifest as lytic, sclerotic, mixed lytic and sclerotic, or thinning lesions, whereas multifocal disease is mainly due to hematologic or secondary malignancies. Metabolic disorders such as rickets, hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, acromegaly, and Paget disease involve the calvaria in a more diffuse pattern. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2021.
Metal artifacts of hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T: a closer look into the B1 effects
OBJECTIVE:field on metal implant-induced artifacts of titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T field strengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:field as the system default, as well as 3.0-T, which permitted CP and EP. Manual segmentation quantified the size of the metal artifacts at the level of the acetabular cup, femoralÂ neck, and femoral shaft. RESULTS:In the acetabular cup and femoral neck, 1.5-T CP achieved smaller artifact sizes than 3.0-T CP (28-29% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.002-0.005; 17-34% on SEMAC, p = 0.019-0.102) and 3.0-T EP (25-28% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.010-0.011; 14-36% on SEMAC, p = 0.058-0.135) techniques. In the femoral stem region, 3.0-T EP achieved more efficient artifact suppression than 3.0-T CP (HBW-TSE 44-45%, p < 0.001-0.022; SEMAC 76-104%, p < 0.001-0.022) and 1.5-T CP (HBW-TSE 76-96%, p < 0.001-0.003; SEMAC 138-173%, p = 0.003-0.005) techniques. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite slightly superior metal reduction ability of the 1.5-T in the region of the acetabular cup and prosthesis neck, 3.0-T MRI of hip arthroplasty implants using elliptically polarized RF pulses may overall be more effective in reducing metal artifacts than the current standard 1.5-T MRI techniques, which by default implements circularly polarized RF pulses.
Heating of Hip Arthroplasty Implants During Metal Artifact Reduction MRI at 1.5- and 3.0-T Field Strengths
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to quantify the spatial temperature rises that occur during 1.5- and 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of different types of hip arthroplasty implants using different metal artifact reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Using a prospective in vitro study design, we evaluated the spatial temperature rises of 4 different total hip arthroplasty constructs using clinical metal artifact reduction techniques including high-bandwidth turbo spin echo (HBW-TSE), slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), and compressed sensing SEMAC at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Each MRI protocol included 6 pulse sequences, with imaging planes, parameters, and coverage identical to those in patients. Implants were immersed in standard American Society for Testing and Materials phantoms, and fiber optic sensors were used for temperature measurement. Effects of field strength, radiofrequency pulse polarization at 3.0 T, pulse protocol, and gradient coil switching on heating were assessed using nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. RESULTS:Across all implant constructs and MRI protocols, the maximum heating at any single point reached 13.1Â°C at 1.5 T and 1.9Â°C at 3.0 T. The temperature rises at 3.0 T were similar to that of background in the absence of implants (P = 1). Higher temperature rises occurred at 1.5 T compared with 3.0 T (P < 0.0001), and circular compared with elliptical radiofrequency pulse polarization (P < 0.0001). Compressed sensing SEMAC generated equal or lower degrees of heating compared with HBW-TSE at both field strengths (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Magnetic resonance imaging of commonly used total hip arthroplasty implants is associated with variable degrees of periprosthetic tissue heating. In the absence of any perfusion effects, the maximum temperature rises fall within the physiological range at 3.0 T and within the supraphysiologic range at 1.5 T. However, with the simulation of tissue perfusion effects, the heating at 1.5 T also reduces to the upper physiologic range. Compressed sensing SEMAC metal artifact reduction MRI is not associated with higher degrees of heating than the HBW-TSE technique.
Heating of hip arthroplasty implants during 1.5 and 3T metal artifact reduction sequence MRI [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: To investigate the heating effect of clinical metal artifact reduction MRI protocols at 1.5 and 3T on different types of hip arthroplasty implants.
Material(s) and Method(s): Two standard ASTM MRI phantoms were placed head-to-head on the scanner table to simulate the upper and lower portions of a human torso. The phantoms were filled with gelled saline medium, which had the electrical and thermal properties of human muscle. Four different total hip arthroplasty implant configurations, including a metal-on-polyethylene construct with cobalt chromium (CoCr) femoral stem, a metal-on-metal construct with CoCr femoral stem, and two metalon-ceramic constructs with titanium (Ti) femoral stems at two lengths were tested. Fiber optic temperature sensors were used to measure the temperature at seven points along the implants. Temperature changes of three clinical pulse sequence type protocols, including high-bandwidth turbo spin echo (HBW-TSE), Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction (SEMAC), and compressed sensing SEMAC (CS-SEMAC) were measured. Each protocol contained 6 pulse sequences, which were obtained in coronal, sagittal and axial orientations as intermediateweighted and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) varieties with image coverage identical to that in patients. Non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were implemented for multi-group comparisons.
Result(s): In 1.5T experiments, the maximum heating consistently occurred at the tip of the femoral stem for all implant types (p < 0.01). The maximum heating at any single point reached to 13.1degreeC at 1.5T which was at the tip of the shorter Ti stem. Across all 3T MRI protocols and all implant constructs, the maximum heating at any single point was 1.9 degreeC. Maximum temperature rises at 3T occurred at the tip of the femoral stem and medial aspect of the acetabular cup in most cases; however, there was no significant heating difference among various points along the implant periphery (p > 0.05). The degree of heating was not different between different implant types at 1.5 or 3T (p > 0.05).
Conclusion(s): Metal artifact reduction MRI at 1.5T may result in supraphysiological heating of the implant which can be mitigated with proper adjustment of scan protocol. However, 3T MRI poses no risk of thermal injury, and can be considered safe clinically
Needle Heating During Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5- and 3.0-T Field Strengths
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that clinically used magnetic resonance (MR)-conditional needles of varying lengths, orientations, locations, and pulse sequences can result in excessive heating during MR imaging (MRI)-guided interventions that can be minimized to physiological ranges with proper selection of the needle length, needle position, and modification of pulse sequence parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We simulated a clinical interventional MRI setting with 2 standard American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-11A phantoms and measured temperatures with fiber optic sensors. Temperature profiles were monitored for commercial 10, 15 and 20 cm MR-conditional cobalt-chromium needles in clinically relevant perpendicular, 45-degree oblique, and parallel orientations relative to the static magnetic field (B0) and center, right off-center, and left off-center needle tip locations in the z = 0 plane. Clinically available interventional MRI pulse sequences including turbo spin echo (TSE), fast TSE, slice encoding for metal artifact correction, compressed sensing slice encoding for metal artifact correction, half-Fourier acquisition single-shot TSE (HASTE), HASTE inversion recovery, fluoroscopic steady-state gradient echo (3.0 T only), fast low-angle shot gradient echo, and volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination gradient echo pulse sequences were tested at 1.5 and 3.0 T field strengths. Acquired temperature data were analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS:After 5-minute of continuous MRI, less than 2.5Â°C heating occurred when needles were oriented perpendicular and 45-degree oblique to B0, regardless of field strengths. Higher temperature rises capable of causing permanent tissue damage were observed when needles were oriented in parallel to B0 (1.5 T: 22Â°C with 20 cm needles, 3.0 T: 8Â°C with 10 and 15 cm needles) using higher radiofrequency energy pulse sequences, such as TSE and HASTE. Left off-center location, parallel orientation, and needle lengths close to half of the radiofrequency pulse wavelength were positively associated with higher temperature rises. CONCLUSIONS:Under the herein used experimental conditions, clinically used MR-conditional needles can heat to supraphysiologic temperatures during prolonged MRI at 1.5 and 3.0 T field strengths; however, the temperature rise can be balanced to physiological ranges with proper selection of needle length, needle orientation, and pulse sequence parameters. Caution must be exercised when using different MRI systems, as results may not directly translate.
Reliability of distal tibio-fibular syndesmotic instability measurements using weightbearing and non-weightbearing cone-beam CT
BACKGROUND:To investigate the reliability and reproducibility of syndesmosis measurements on weightbearing (WB) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and compare them with measurements obtained using non-weightbearing (NWB) images. METHODS:In this IRB-approved, retrospective study of 5 men and 9 women with prior ankle injuries, simultaneous WB and NWB CBCT scans were taken. A set of 21 syndesmosis measurements using WB and NWB images were performed by 3 independent observers. Pearson/Spearman correlation and intra-class correlation (ICC) were used to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability, respectively. RESULTS:We observed substantial to perfect intra-observer reliability (ICC=0.72-0.99) in 20 measurements. Moderate to perfect agreement (ICC=0.45-0.97) between observers was noted in 19 measurements. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Measurements evaluating the distance between tibia and fibula in the axial plane 10mm above the plafond had high intra- and inter-observer reliability. Mean posterior tibio-fibular distance, diastasis, and angular measurement were significantly different between WB and NWB images.
Cartilage Imaging in Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the United States. The prevalence of OA is rising due to an aging population and increasing rates of obesity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows an incomparable noninvasive assessment of all joint structures. Irreversible and progressive degradation of the articular cartilage remains the hallmark feature of OA. To date, attempts at developing disease-modifying drugs or biomechanical interventions for treating OA have proven unsuccessful. MRI-based cartilage imaging techniques have continued to advance, however, and will likely play a central role in the development of these joint preservation methods of the future. In this narrative review, we describe clinical MR image acquisition and assessment of cartilage. We discuss the semiquantitative cartilage scoring methods used in research. Lastly, we review the quantitative MRI techniques that allow assessment of changes in the biochemical composition of cartilage, even before the morphological changes are evident.
Partially thrombosed aneurysm of the medial marginal vein [Case Report]
Lower extremity superficial venous aneurysms are occasionally encountered by clinicians and are almost always located above the knee. Very few cases of aneurysm of the medial marginal vein in the most distal part, near the origin of the great saphenous vein, have been reported. We present a case of partially thrombosed aneurysm of the medial marginal vein, and briefly review the imaging characteristics and treatment options of this entity. Being aware of the existence of superficial venous aneurysms may help clinicians in their differential diagnosis of foot masses and choice of appropriate treatment.