Estimation of in-scanner head pose changes during structural MRI using a convolutional neural network trained on eye tracker video
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:In-scanner head motion is a common cause of reduced image quality in neuroimaging, and causes systematic brain-wide changes in cortical thickness and volumetric estimates derived from structural MRI scans. There are few widely available methods for measuring head motion during structural MRI. Here, we train a deep learning predictive model to estimate changes in head pose using video obtained from an in-scanner eye tracker during an EPI-BOLD acquisition with participants undertaking deliberate in-scanner head movements. The predictive model was used to estimate head pose changes during structural MRI scans, and correlated with cortical thickness and subcortical volume estimates. METHODS:). We evaluated the utility of our technique by assessing the relationship between video-based head pose changes during structural MRI and (i) vertex-wise cortical thickness and (ii) subcortical volume estimates. RESULTS:Video-based head pose estimates were significantly correlated with ground truth head pose changes estimated from EPI-BOLD imaging in a hold-out dataset. We observed a general brain-wide overall reduction in cortical thickness with increased head motion, with some isolated regions showing increased cortical thickness estimates with increased motion. Subcortical volumes were generally reduced in motion affected scans. CONCLUSIONS:We trained a predictive model to estimate changes in head pose during structural MRI scans using in-scanner eye tracker video. The method is independent of individual image acquisition parameters and does not require markers to be to be fixed to the patient, suggesting it may be well suited to clinical imaging and research environments. Head pose changes estimated using our approach can be used as covariates for morphometric image analyses to improve the neurobiological validity of structural imaging studies of brain development and disease.
Clinical features and antibody response of patients from a COVID-19 treatment hospital in Wuhan, China
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic.Â A total of 1578 patients admitted into a newly built hospital specialized for COVID-19 treatment in Wuhan, China, were enrolled. Clinical features and the levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG were analyzed.Â In total, 1532 patients (97.2%) were identified as laboratory-confirmed cases. Seventy-seven patients were identified as asymptomatic carriers (nâ€‰=â€‰64) or SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive before symptom onset (nâ€‰=â€‰13). The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were 80.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The median of IgM and IgG titers were 37.0Aâ€‰U/ml (interquartile range [IQR]:Â 13.4-81.1â€‰AU/ml) and 156.9â€‰AU/ml (IQR: 102.8-183.3â€‰AU/ml), respectively. The IgM and IgG levels of asymptomatic patients (median titers, 8.3â€‰AU/ml and 100.3â€‰AU/ml) were much lower than those in symptomatic patients (median titers, 38.0â€‰AU/ml and 158.2â€‰AU/ml). A much lower IgG level was observed in critically ill patients 42-60 days after symptom onset. There were 153 patients with viral RNA shedding after IgG detection. These patients had a higher proportion of critical illness during hospitalization (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and a longer hospital stay (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) compared to patients with viral clearance after IgG detection. Coronary heart disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.89 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.24]; pâ€‰=â€‰.020), and intensive care unitÂ admission (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.31-4.66];Â pâ€‰=â€‰.005) were independent risk factors associated with viral RNA shedding after IgG detection.Â Symptomatic patients produced more antibodies than asymptomatic patients. The patients who had SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding after developing IgG were more likely to be sicker patients.
Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Promotes Neurite Outgrowth and Survival of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons in vitro Through NPR-A/cGMP/PKG Signaling
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a dominant public health issue affecting millions of people around the globe, which is correlated with the irreversible deterioration of the hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) within the cochlea. Strategies using bioactive molecules that regulate neurite regeneration and neuronal survival to reestablish connections between auditory epithelium or implanted electrodes and SGN neurites would become attractive therapeutic candidates for SNHL. As an intracellular second messenger, cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) can be synthesized through activation of particulate guanylate cyclase-coupled natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) by natriuretic peptides, which in turn modulates multiple aspects of neuronal functions including neuronal development and neuronal survival. As a cardiac-derived hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and its specific receptors (NPR-A and NPR-C) are broadly expressed in the nervous system where they might be involved in the maintenance of diverse neural functions. Despite former literatures and our reports indicating the existence of ANP and its receptors within the inner ear, particularly in the spiral ganglion, their potential regulatory mechanisms underlying functional properties of auditory neurons are still incompletely understood. Our recently published investigation revealed that ANP could promote the neurite outgrowth of SGNs by activating NPR-A/cGMP/PKG cascade in a dose-dependent manner. In the present research, the influence of ANP and its receptor-mediated downstream signaling pathways on neurite outgrowth, neurite attraction, and neuronal survival of SGNs in vitro was evaluated by employing cultures of organotypic explant and dissociated neuron from postnatal rats. Our data indicated that ANP could support and attract neurite outgrowth of SGNs and possess a high capacity to improve neuronal survival of SGNs against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by triggering the NPR-A/cGMP/PKG pathway. The neuroregenerative and neuroprotective effects of ANP/NPRA/cGMP/PKG-dependent signaling on SGNs would represent an attractive therapeutic candidate for hearing impairment.
Loss of CDKN2A at chromosome 9 has a poor clinical prognosis and promotes lung cancer progression
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to identify critical genes involved in the tumor biology of lung cancer via datamining of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with special focus on gene copy number variation. METHODS:Genomic deletion and amplification were analyzed with cBioportal online tools. Relative expression of Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) was analyzed by both real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. The abundance of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers were analyzed by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 method and cell viability was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The cell migration and invasion were measured with transwell chamber assay, and migrative capacity was further evaluated by wound healing assay. RESULTS:We found the frequent loss of CDKN2A was associated with its downregulation in lung cancer, and siRNA-mediated CDNKN2A knockdown significantly stimulated cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Mechanistically, we unraveled that MTAP, which was positively correlated with CDKN2A, predominantly mediated the antitumoral function of CDKN2A in lung cancer. CONCLUSION:Our study consolidated the involvement of CDKN2A-MTAP signaling in the context of lung cancer.
Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) interplay effect evaluation of asymmetric breathing with simultaneous uncertainty considerations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to uncertainties from patient setup and proton beam range, as well as interplay effect. In addition, respiratory motion may vary from cycle to cycle, and also from day to day. These uncertainties can severely degrade the original plan quality and potentially affect patient's outcome. In this work, we developed a new tool to comprehensively consider the impact of all these uncertainties and provide plan robustness evaluation under them. METHODS:We developed a comprehensive plan robustness evaluation tool that considered both uncertainties from patient setup and proton beam range, as well as respiratory motion simultaneously. To mimic patients' respiratory motion, the time spent in each phase was randomly sampled based on patient-specific breathing pattern parameters as acquired during the four-dimensional (4D)-computed tomography (CT) simulation. Spots were then assigned to one specific phase according to the temporal relationship between spot delivery sequence and patients' respiratory motion. Dose in each phase was calculated by summing contributions from all the spots delivered in that phase. The final 4D dynamic dose was obtained by deforming all doses in each phase to the maximum exhalation phase. Three hundred (300) scenarios (10 different breathing patterns with 30 different setup and range uncertainty scenario combinations) were calculated for each plan. The dose-volume histograms (DVHs) band method was used to assess plan robustness. Benchmarking the tool as an application's example, we compared plan robustness under both three-dimensional (3D) and 4D robustly optimized IMPT plans for 10 nonrandomly selected patients with non-small cell lung cancer. RESULTS:, PÂ =Â 0.020) favoring 4D plans and comparable normal tissue sparing including esophagus, heart, and spinal cord for both 3D and 4D plans were observed. The calculation time for all patients included in this study was 11.4Â Â±Â 2.6Â min. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A comprehensive plan robustness evaluation tool was successfully developed and benchmarked for plan robustness evaluation in the presence of interplay effect, setup and range uncertainties. The very high efficiency of this tool marks its clinical adaptation, highly practical and versatile nature, including possible real-time intra-fractional interplay effect evaluation as a potential application for future use.
Early Outcomes of Patients With Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: The Mayo Clinic Experience
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:There are very little data available comparing outcomes of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC (LA-NSCLC). Methods/UNASSIGNED:Â =Â 46 [58%]) from 2016 to 2018 at our institution. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Acute and subacute toxicities were graded based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03. Results/UNASSIGNED:Â =Â .47). There was 1 treatment-related death from radiation pneumonitis 6Â months after IMRT in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Compared with IMRT, our early experience suggests that IMPT resulted in similar outcomes in a frailer population of LA-NSCLC who were more often being reirradiated. The role of IMPT remains to be defined prospectively.
Tissue Engineering Clinical Council Roundtable Discussion: Opportunities and Challenges in Clinical Translation
How Should the Surgical Approach In Thyroidectomy Be Selected? A Prospective Study Comparing the Trauma of 3 Different Thyroidectomy Surgical Approaches
OBJECTIVE:To compare the trauma of 3 different surgical approaches and provide a reference for clinicians in choosing the operative procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 150 patients were divided into the total endoscopic thyroidectomy (TET), endoscopic-assisted thyroidectomy (EAT), and conventional open thyroidectomy (COT) groups, with 50 patients in each group. The peripheral blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at different postoperative time points, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, postoperative pain, degree of satisfaction with the incision appearance, postoperative extubation time, and swallowing discomfort 3 months after surgery were compared among the groups that received different surgical approaches. RESULTS:The operative time of TET was longer than that of COT and EAT. The intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in the TET and EAT groups than in the COT group. The postoperative drainage volume was lowest after EAT and highest after TET. The extubation time was significantly shorter after EAT than after TET and COT. The 6-hour CRP level was significantly higher after TET than after EAT and COT, and the 24-hour CRP level was better in the EAT group than in the other 2 groups. The CRP levels at 72 hours postoperatively were lowest in the EAT group and highest in the TET group. Postoperative pain was significantly lower after EAT than after TET and COT. Cosmetic satisfaction was highest in the TET group and lowest in the COT group. Swallowing discomfort was lowest in the EAT group and highest in the TET group. There was a positive correlation between the drainage volume on the first postoperative day, the drainage tube removal time, dysphagia, and the CRP level in each period. There was a positive correlation between pain, cosmetic satisfaction and CRP in 2 of the time periods. CONCLUSIONS:All 3 types of thyroidectomy are safe and reliable in benign tumor resection. Therefore, in clinical practice, the age, sex, and cosmetic needs of the patients, and the oncological safety should all be considered to provide patients with the most appropriate recommendations. In view of oncological safety, TET should be carefully selected for malignant tumor resection.
Asiatic Acid Glucosamine Salt Alleviates Ultraviolet B-induced Photoaging of Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Nude Mouse Skin
Herbal extracts including asiatic acid (AA) have become popular candidates for anti-photoaging agents due to their anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation properties and minimal side effect. Nevertheless, low bioavailability due to poor solubility limits their practical application. In this study, a highly bioavailable form of AA called AAGS (compounded by asiatic acid and glucosamine) was investigated for its anti-photoaging effect using both in vitro and in vivo model along with UVB irradiation. The results showed that AAGS alleviated UVB induced cell proliferation inhibition by reducing G2 phase arrest and cell apoptosis rate as well as the gene expressions of P53, BAX, CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 9, but enhancing BCL-2 expression. It also reduced the production of reactive oxygen species along with increased gene expression of GPX-1 and down-regulated the gene expression of IL-1Î², IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and TNF-Î± compared to non-treated cells. In vivo results demonstrated the photodamaging protecting effect by restoring skin thickness, collagen content and reducing MMPs expression, which are also supported by reduced MMPs gene expression and enhanced collagen I and TGF-Î²1 gene expression in vitro. Thus, AAGS may become a potential anti-photoaging agent for topical use due to its capability of self-assembling into a water gel. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.