Nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescents: current developments to help inform assessment and treatment
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes the recent literature examining nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents, with a particular focus on how primary care pediatricians (PCPs) might assess and intervene as a common first point of contact. This NSSI review is timely and relevant, given the prevalence rates among adolescents, as well as its link to suicidal behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS:NSSI is most prevalent among adolescents, with lifetime prevalence rates between 17 and 60%. With evidence that the most common age of onset is between 12 and 14 years, evaluating NSSI is a challenging yet necessary aspect of a comprehensive adolescent medical examination. The function of NSSI behaviors may have implications for effective treatment and should be included in assessment. The majority of research has indicated that NSSI serves an emotion regulation function, in that the behavior results in a decrease in intensity of adverse emotional states in the absence of more effective coping strategies. SUMMARY:Considering the prevalence of self-injury among adolescents, the likelihood that PCPs will encounter NSSI in their practice is quite high. Given that more than 50% of youth do not receive needed mental health services, it is critical that PCPs assess for NSSI and intervene accordingly.
Impact of chronic illness in children on families: Kidney disease (KD) versus diabetes mellitus (DM) [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Chronic illness in children has adverse effects on family members besides the patient and can impact the integrity and function of the family unit. Most previous studies have examined a single disease entity. However, there has been limited assessment comparing the effect of different illnesses on family function.
Method(s): Established patients treated in the pediatric ambulatory Nephrology or DM clinics were included in the study. Their parents were asked to complete the 2-page Pediatric Quality-of-Life Family Impact Module (PedsQL-FIM), version 2.0, a validated survey instrument. Clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from the electronic health record. Data were summarized as mean+/-SD. Disease group and child age were entered as predictors in linear regression analyses with FIM total and subscale scores as outcome variables. Comparisons between groups were assessed using paired t-tests.
Result(s): 96 patients (43 F: 53 M) were evaluated in the Nephrology Clinic and 55 (30 F: 25 M) in the DM Clinic. The mean age of the patients was 13.0+/-3.9 and 10.4+/- 6.3 yr, respectively. Within the KD sample, older age was significantly associated with lower scores on all FIM subscale scores. Gender was not a significant predicator for FIM scores in either disease group. Controlling for age, chronic illness group was a significant predictor of the FIM total and subscale scores. Parents of D patients endorsed significantly lower total FIM scores compared to the KD patients (D 58+/-16; KD 79+/-17 p <0.001) as well as on subscales of physical, emotional, social, and cognitive functioning, communication, worry, daily activities, family relationships, and reports of health-related quality of life (P<0.01).
Conclusion(s): Our findings confirm that chronic illness in childhood adversely affects a wide range of aspects of family function. The impact is greater in older children with KD and varies depending on the disease context. Families with children who have DM manifested greater disturbances than those with children who have isolated KD. Further study is warranted to assess the effects of the underlying renal disease and intensity of medical care and whether there are specific features can be used to identify vulnerable families