Breast Milk and Breastfeeding of Infants Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Mothers: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒThere are limited published data on the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from mothers to newborns through breastfeeding or from breast milk. The World Health Organization released guidelines encouraging mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to breastfeed as the benefits of breastfeeding outweighs the possible risk of transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 was present in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test prior to delivery, and the clinical outcomes for their newborns. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:by two-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the clinical characteristics of the maternal newborn dyad, results of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing, and neonatal follow-up data were collected. RESULTS:â€ƒA total of 19 mothers were included in the study and their infants who were all fed breast milk. Breast milk samples from 18 mothers tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, and 1 was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The infant who ingested the breast milk that tested positive had a negative nasopharyngeal test for SARS-CoV-2, and had a benign clinical course. There was no evidence of significant clinical infection during the hospital stay or from outpatient neonatal follow-up data for all the infants included in this study. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒIn a small cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive lactating mothers giving birth at our institution, most of their breast milk samples (95%) contained no detectable virus, and there was no evidence of COVID-19 infection in their breast milk-fed neonates. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Breast milk may rarely contain detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA and was not detected in asymptomatic mothers.. Â· Breast milk with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a symptomatic mother had no clinical significance for her infant.. Â· Breast feeding with appropriate infection control instructions appears to be safe in mother with COVID infection..
Effects of Inhaled Iloprost for the Management of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
OBJECTIVE:â€ƒThe study aimed to evaluate the effects of inhaled iloprost on oxygenation indices in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:) were recorded. RESULTS:â€‰<â€‰0.05), with no significant change in required mean airway pressure over that same period. There was no change in vasopressor use or clinically significant worsening of platelets count, liver, and kidney functions after initiating iloprost. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒInhaled iloprost is well tolerated and seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO. There is a need of well-designed prospective trials to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost as an adjunct treatment in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO alone. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:Â· Inhaled iloprost seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in PPHN.. Â· Inhaled iloprost is generally well tolerated in newborns with PPHN.. Â· There is a need for prospective RCTs to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost..
Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area
Outcomes of Maternal-Newborn Dyads After Maternal SARS-CoV-2
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Preparedness for the Novel Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic: A New York City Hospital Perspective
In January 2020, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia associated with a novel pathogenic coronavirus provisionally named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Since then, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in more than 180 countries with approximately 3 million known infections and more than 210,000 deaths attributed to this disease. The majority of confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in adults, especially older individuals with co-morbidities. Children have had a relatively lower rate and a less serious course of infection as reported in the literature to date. One of the most vulnerable pediatric patient populations is cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. There is limited data on the effect of COVID-19 in fetal life, and among neonates after birth. Therefore there is an urgent need for proactive preparation, and planning to combat COVID-19, as well as to safeguard patients, their families, and healthcare personnel. This review article is based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) current recommendations for COVID-19 and its adaptation to our local resources. The aim of this article is to provide basic consolidated guidance and checklists to clinicians in the neonatal intensive care units in key aspects of preparation needed to counter exposure or infection with COVID-19. We anticipate that CDC will continue to update their guidelines regarding COVID-19 as the situation evolves, and we recommend monitoring CDC's updates for the most current information.
Neonate Born to a Mother with a Diagnosis of Suspected Intra-Amniotic Infection versus COVID-19 or Both [Case Report]
A diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection is typically made based on clinical criteria, including maternal intrapartum fever and one or more of the following: maternal leukocytosis, purulent cervical drainage, or fetal tachycardia. The diagnosis can also be made in patients with an isolated fever of 39Â°C, or greater, without any other clinical risk factors present. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been noted to have varying signs and symptoms over the course of the disease including fever, cough, fatigue, anorexia, shortness of breath, sputum production, and myalgia. In this report, we detail a case of a newborn born to a mother with a clinical diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection with maternal fever and fetal tachycardia, who was then found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive on testing. Due to the varying presentation of COVID-19, this case illustrates the low threshold needed to test mothers for SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent horizontal transmission to neonates and to healthcare providers.
Electrical Activity of the Diaphragm in a Small Cohort of Preterm Infants on Noninvasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A Prospective Comparative Pilot Study
OBJECTIVE:To compare the electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) of premature infants placed on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with the Edi of premature infants placed on noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV NAVA). The secondary aim was to evaluate the feasibility of the use of NIV NAVA mode in the busy tertiary neonatal unit. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a prospective crossover pilot study of premature infants requiring noninvasive respiratory support. Infants were randomized to initially receive either CPAP/biphasic (group 1) or NIV NAVA (group 2) and were then crossed over to the alternate group. Continuous Edi signals were recorded for 24 h, with 12 h each on CPAP/biphasic, and NIV NAVA along with other clinical and respiratory parameters.Â Results: Ten infants with a mean gestation age of 29 weeks (range 25-34 weeks) were enrolled, with a total cumulative Edi monitoring of 240 h. The average Edi peak on the biphasic/CPAP group (15.6 Â± 7 mcV) was significantly higher (P < 0.005), compared to the Edi Peak on the NIV NAVA group (10.8 Â± 3.3 mcV). The Edi min values were 3.23 Â± 1.1 mcV, and 3.07 Â± 0.5 mcV on CPAP/biphasic and NIV NAVA (P = 0.69) respectively. There were no significant differences in other clinical parameters between the two groups. No major adverse events were recorded during Edi catheter monitoring. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Edi peak values were significantly lower in NIV NAVA mode compared to CPAP/biphasic mode. The Edi catheter and NIV NAVA may also be used safely in premature infants.
Therapeutic hypothermia during neonatal transport at Regional Perinatal Centers: active vs. passive cooling
Background Earlier initiation of therapeutic hypothermia in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy has been shown to improve neurological outcomes. The objective of the study was to compare safety and effectiveness of servo-controlled active vs. passive cooling used during neonatal transport in achieving target core temperature. Methods We undertook a prospective cohort quality improvement study with historic controls of therapeutic hypothermia during transport. Primary outcome measures were analyzed: time to cool after initiation of transport, time to achieve target temperature from birth and temperature on arrival to cooling centers. Safety was assessed by group comparison of vital signs, diagnosis of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) and coagulation profiles on arrival. Results A total of 65 infants were included in the study. Time to cool after initiation of transport and time to achieve target temperature from birth were statistically significantly shorter in the actively cooled group with time reduction of 24% with P<0.01 and 15.6% with P<0.01, respectively. On arrival to our cooling center, we noted a significance difference in the mean core temperature (active 33.8Â°C vs. passive 35.4Â°C, P<0.01). Seven percent (2/30) of infants in the passively cooled group were overcooled (temperature <33Â°C). Patients in the actively cooled group had significantly lower mean heart rate compared to the passively cooled group. There was no statistically significant difference in diagnosis of PPHN or coagulation profiles on admission. Conclusions Our study indicates that active cooling with a servo-controlled device on neonatal transport is safe and more effective in achieving target temperature compared to passive cooling.