The Cochlea in Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome: An Objective Method for the Diagnosis of Offset Cochlear Turns
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:-branchio-oto-renal syndrome and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Temporal bone CT or MR imaging from 40 individuals with branchio-oto-renal syndrome and 40 controls was retrospectively reviewed. Cochlear offset was determined visually by 2 independent blinded readers and then quantitatively via a standardized technique yielding the cochlear turn alignment ratio. The turn alignment ratio values were compared between cochleae qualitatively assessed as "not offset" and "offset." Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the ability of the turn alignment ratio to differentiate between these populations and an optimal cutoff turn alignment ratio value. Cochlear offset and turn alignment ratio values were analyzed for each branchio-oto-renal syndrome genotype subpopulation and for controls. RESULTS:-branchio-oto-renal syndrome subset and all controls had no offset and a turn alignment ratio of >0.476. CONCLUSIONS:-branchio-oto-renal syndrome and from individuals without branchio-oto-renal syndrome or sensorineural hearing loss. The turn alignment ratio is a reliable and objective metric that can aid in the imaging evaluation of branchio-oto-renal syndrome.
Oral Cavity and Salivary Glands Anatomy
Knowledge of anatomy is essential to the understanding of disease and conditions of the oral cavity and salivary glands. This article is intended to serve as an overview of the oral cavity, its subsites, and that of the neighboring salivary glands. The authors cover the anatomy of the lips, tongue, floor of mouth, hard palate, teeth, various mucosal areas, and salivary ducts. When appropriate, radiological imaging along with figures serves as a companion to highlight the clinical relevance and practical applications of specific anatomic locations.
Adenoidal-Nasopharyngeal Ratio in Healthy Adults on Cone Beam Computed Tomography
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to quantify the adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR) in a cohort of healthy adults on cone beam computed tomography (CT) using the Fujioka method, which is a reproducible measure of adenoid size and nasopharyngeal patency. METHODS:Electronic health records and maxillofacial cone beam CT in 202 consecutive patients aged 16 years and older were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a history of adenoidectomy, sinonasal disease, lymphoproliferative disorders, and cleft palate were excluded from the study. The midsagittal reconstructed cone beam CT image was used to determine the ANR. Statistical analysis was conducted using 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS:Of the 202 subjects, 131 were female and 71 were male. The mean Â± SD subject age was 45.43 Â± 20.79 years (range, 16-91 years). The mean Â± SD ANR in all subjects was 0.22 Â± 0.13 (range, 0.03-0.75) and in each decade of adult life was as follows: younger than 21 years, 0.39 Â± 0.12; 21 to 30 years, 0.29 Â± 0.11; 31 to 40 years, 0.21 Â± 0.09; 41 to 50 years, 0.20 Â± 0.07; 51 to 60 years, 0.16 Â± 0.10; 61 to 70 years, 0.13 Â± 0.05; 71 to 80 years, 0.12 Â± 0.05; 81 to 90 years, 0.11 Â± 0.04; and 91 years or older, 0.10 Â± 0. The differences in mean ANR among the age subgroups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The mean ANR gradually decreased from 0.39 in the second decade of life to 0.16 in the sixth decade of life and plateaued at approximately 0.10 thereafter.
Normal Anatomic Structures, Variants, and Mimics of the Temporal Bone
Various anatomic structures and variants in the temporal bone are potential radiological mimics and surgical hazards. The imaging features of normal variants and lesions with similar imaging appearance are presented in this article. Throughout the article, salient features that can help elucidate the distinguishing features between mimics and imaging pitfalls are presented.
Normal Anatomic Structures and Variants of the Sinonasal Cavities, Orbit, and Jaw
This article discusses mimics, anatomic variants, and pitfalls of imaging of the sinonasal cavity, orbit, and jaw. The authors discuss clinical findings and imaging pearls, which help in differentiating these from one another.
Mimics, Pearls, and Pitfalls of Head and Neck Imaging [Editorial]
Isolated Optic Neuropathy as Presenting Sign of Systemic Lymphoma
Imaging of Neck and Facial Infections
Cham, Switzerland : Springer
Raiders of the Lost Canal: Reviewof Underrecognized Skull Base Canals, Fissures, and Foramina
The anatomy of the skull base is complex and poses a daunting challenge to many radiologists and trainees. In addition to knowing major skull base passages, there are several underrecognized skull base canals, foramina, and fissures that are critical to avoid misdiagnosis, understand the spread of disease, and guide surgical management. A review of the current literature on these forgotten structures yielded numerous original articles and a few review articles, none of which were comprehensive. This article aimed to fill that void. We provide a comprehensive review of underrecognized skull base anatomic structures and their content and discuss their clinical implications. Learning Objective: Recognize uncommon skull base structures, their content, and their clinical implications.
ACR Appropriateness CriteriaÂ® Parathyroid Adenoma
Hyperparathyroidism is defined as excessive parathyroid hormone production. The diagnosis is made through biochemical testing, in which imaging has no role. However, imaging is appropriate for preoperative parathyroid gland localization with the intent of surgical cure. Imaging is particularly useful in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism whereby accurate localization of a single parathyroid adenoma can facilitate minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Imaging can also be useful to localize ectopic or supernumerary parathyroid glands and detail anatomy, which may impact surgery. This document summarizes the literature and provides imaging recommendations for hyperparathyroidism including primary hyperparathyroidism, recurrent or persistent primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroid surgery, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Recommendations include ultrasound, CT neck without and with contrast, and nuclear medicine parathyroid scans. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.