Subtle skills: Using objective structured clinical examinations to assess gastroenterology fellow performance in system based practice milestones
BACKGROUND:System based practice (SBP) milestones require trainees to effectively navigate the larger health care system for optimal patient care. In gastroenterology training programs, the assessment of SBP is difficult due to high volume, high acuity inpatient care, as well as inconsistent direct supervision. Nevertheless, structured assessment is required for training programs. We hypothesized that objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) would be an effective tool for assessment of SBP. AIM/OBJECTIVE:To develop a novel method for SBP milestone assessment of gastroenterology fellows using the OSCE. METHODS:For this observational study, we created 4 OSCE stations: Counseling an impaired colleague, handoff after overnight call, a feeding tube placement discussion, and giving feedback to a medical student on a progress note. Twenty-six first year fellows from 7 programs participated. All fellows encountered identical case presentations. Checklists were completed by trained standardized patients who interacted with each fellow participant. A report with individual and composite scores was generated and forwarded to program directors to utilize in formative assessment. Fellows also received immediate feedback from a faculty observer and completed a post-session program evaluation survey. RESULTS:." One hundred percent of the fellows stated they would incorporate OSCE learning into their clinical practice. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:OSCEs may be used for standardized evaluation of SBP milestones. Trainees scored lower on SBP milestones than other more concrete milestones. Training programs should consider OSCEs for assessment of SBP.
Rates of Duodenal Biopsy During Upper Endoscopy Differ Widely Between Providers: Implications for Diagnosis of Celiac Disease
GOAL/OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study is to determine factors associated with performance of duodenal biopsy during upper endoscopy. BACKGROUND:Celiac disease (CD) prevalence approaches 1% in the United States and Europe, yet CD remains underdiagnosed, in part because of low rates of duodenal biopsy during upper endoscopy. We aimed to identify patient and provider factors associated with performance of duodenal biopsy during upper endoscopy. STUDY/METHODS:In our hospital-based endoscopy suite, we identified all patients not previously diagnosed with CD who underwent upper endoscopy during a 5-year period for one of the following indications: abdominal pain/dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), anemia/iron deficiency, diarrhea, and weight loss. We employed univariate and multivariate analysis to determine the association between clinical factors and the performance of duodenal biopsy. RESULTS:Of 8572 patients included in the study, 4863 (57%) underwent duodenal biopsy. Of those who underwent duodenal biopsy, 24 (0.49%) were found to have CD. On multivariate analysis, age, gender, indication, gross endoscopic appearance, physician affiliation with a celiac disease center, and absence of a participating trainee were all significantly associated with the performance of duodenal biopsy. There was wide variability among providers, with duodenal biopsy rates ranging from 27% to 91% during these procedures. CONCLUSIONS:A duodenal biopsy is more likely to be performed in younger patients, females, and for key indications such as weight loss, diarrhea, and anemia. Providers varied widely in the performance of duodenal biopsy. Further study is warranted to better understand the decision to perform duodenal biopsy and to determine the optimal scenarios for its performance.
Sleeve Gastrectomy is a Risk Factor for Barrett's Esophagus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [Meeting Abstract]
Comparison of biochemical failure definitions for predicting local cancer recurrence following cryoablation of the prostate
BACKGROUND:Various definitions of biochemical failure (BF) have been used to predict cancer recurrence following prostate cryoablation. However to date, none of these definitions have been validated for this use. We have reviewed several definitions of BF to determine their accuracy in predicting biopsy-proven local recurrence following prostate cryoablation. METHODS:The Columbia University Urologic Oncology Database was queried for patients who underwent prostate cryoablation between 1994 and 2010, and who subsequently underwent surveillance biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer recurrence. Serial postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) results were used to determine BF according to various definitions of BF. Biopsy results were used to determine local recurrence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area were calculated for each of the BF definitions. RESULTS:A total of 110 patients met inclusion criteria for the study. These patients were treated with primary full-gland (nâ€‰=â€‰38), primary focal (nâ€‰=â€‰24), or salvage cryoablation (nâ€‰=â€‰48). On surveillance biopsy, 66 patients (60%) were found to have locally recurrent prostate cancer. The most accurate BF definition overall was PSA nadir plus 2â€‰ng/ml (Phoenix definition), with sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curve area of 68%, 59%, and 0.64, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the Phoenix definition best predicted local cancer recurrence following prostate cryoablation. These preliminary data may be useful for researchers evaluating the short-term efficacy of cryoablation, and for urologists assessing their patients for potential cancer recurrence.
Socioeconomic and clinical factors influence the interval between positive prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy
OBJECTIVE:To examine socioeconomic and clinical factors that may predict a longer interval between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS:The Columbia University Urologic Oncology Database was queried for patients who underwent RP from 1990-2010. Time to surgery (TTS) was defined as the period between the most recent positive prostate biopsy and date of surgery. Clinical factors examined included: age, D'Amico risk group, year of surgery, body mass index, and comorbidities. Socioeconomic factors included race/ethnicity, relationship status, income, and distance to treatment center. The relationship between clinical/socioeconomic factors and TTS was evaluated using univariate and multivariate regression models. RESULTS:Two-thousand five-hundred seventy-three patients were included in the analysis. Median TTS was 48 days (IQR 35-70, range 43-1103), and 71% of patients underwent RP within 60 days after the most recent positive biopsy. On multivariate analysis, living further from the medical center was associated with shorter TTS (P = .01), whereas more recent year of surgery (P = .01), comorbid cardiovascular disease (P = .007), African-American (P = .005) or Hispanic race (P = .005), divorced relationship status (P = .01), and lower income (P = .003) were all associated with longer TTS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients often experience widely variable intervals between the diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer. Longer intervals before surgery may point to disparities in access to prostate cancer care, and not increased decision-making time by the patient.
Effect of delaying surgery on radical prostatectomy outcomes: a contemporary analysis
UNLABELLED:Study Type - Therapy (case series). Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? For patients electing surgical treatment, the question of the effect of surgical delay on clinical outcomes in prostate cancer is controversial. In this study we examined the effect of delay from diagnosis to surgery on outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer and found no association between time to surgery and risk of biochemical recurrence, even for patients with longer delays and high-risk disease. Men with localized prostate cancer can be reassured that reasonable delays in treatment will not influence disease outcomes. OBJECTIVE:â€¢ To examine the effect of time from last positive biopsy to surgery on clinical outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:â€¢ We conducted a retrospective review of 2739 men who underwent RP between 1990 and 2009 at our institution. â€¢ Clinical and pathological features were compared between men undergoing RP â‰¤ 60, 61-90 and >90 days from the time of prostate biopsy. â€¢ A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse the association between clinical features and surgical delay with biochemical progression. Biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free rates were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:â€¢ Of the 1568 men meeting the inclusion criteria, 1098 (70%), 303 (19.3%) and 167 (10.7%) had a delay of â‰¤ 60, 61-90 and >90 days, respectively, between biopsy and RP. A delay of >60 days was not associated with adverse pathological findings at surgery. â€¢ The 5-year survival rate was similar among the three groups (78-85%, P= 0.11). â€¢ In a multivariate Cox model, men with higher PSA levels, clinical stages, Gleason sums, and those of African-American race were all at higher risk for developing BCR. â€¢ A delay to surgery of >60 days was not associated with worse biochemical outcomes in a univariate and multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS:â€¢ A delay of >60 days is not associated with adverse pathological outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer, nor does it correlate with worse BCR-free survival. â€¢ Patients can be assured that delaying treatment while considering therapeutic options will not adversely affect their outcomes.
Increased risk of overall and cardiovascular mortality after radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 2 cm or less
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:We used a large, population based registry to assess whether a difference in overall and cardiovascular survival may exist between radical nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 2 cm or less. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:From the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) registry we identified 4,216 patients with histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma 2 cm or less who were treated with partial or radical nephrectomy. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between the 2 patient groups. Multivariate logistic regression was done to predict the odds of undergoing radical nephrectomy. Cardiovascular survival and overall survival were compared between the 2 cohorts, adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics. RESULTS:Overall 2,301 patients (55%) underwent partial nephrectomy. Partial nephrectomy use steadily increased during the study period from 27% of all cases in 1998 to 66% in 2007. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy were an average of 2.5 years younger than those treated with radical nephrectomy (56.4 vs 58.9 years, p <0.001). They were more likely to be white and from the western or northeastern United States. Older age was the only independent predictor of radical nephrectomy (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03). When controlling for patient characteristics and surgery year, radical nephrectomy was associated with worse overall mortality (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.75-2.84) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.51-4.23). CONCLUSIONS:Radical nephrectomy is associated with worse overall and cardiovascular survival compared to partial nephrectomy in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma 2 cm or less. These findings justify the widespread application of nephron sparing techniques to treat localized kidney cancer.
Vitamin D deficiency in the urological population: a single center analysis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Vitamin D has a well-known role in calcium metabolism and bone health. It may also help prevent a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and malignancies such as breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. To our knowledge the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has never been reported in the general urological population. We evaluated the vitamin D status of this population at a large academic center. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the records of 3,763 male and female patients from a urology database at a single academic institution. Patients were identified whose levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured for the first time between 1997 and 2010. We determined the prevalence of normal--greater than 30, insufficient--20 to 29 and deficient--less than 20 ng/ml 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS:Overall 2,559 patients (68%) had suboptimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (less than 30 ng/ml), of whom 1,331 (52%) were frankly deficient (less than 20 ng/ml) in the vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency was more common in patients younger than age 50 years (44.5%), black (53.2%) and Hispanic (41.6%) patients (p <0.001), and patients without an existing urological malignancy (35.4%, p <0.001). On multivariate analysis race, age, season and cancer diagnosis were independent predictors of vitamin D status. CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in urological patients at a major urban medical center. Urologists should consider recommending appropriate supplementation during the initial assessment of all patients.
Persistent overuse of radical nephrectomy in the elderly
OBJECTIVE:To analyze the use of radical nephrectomy (RN) and partial nephrectomy during a 10-year period in patients agedâ‰¥75 years compared with their younger counterparts. METHODS:Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, we identified 18 045 cases of localized renal cell carcinoma of â‰¤4 cm diagnosed from 1998 to 2007. The baseline differences in demographic and tumor characteristics were compared between the 2 age cohorts (<75 vs â‰¥75 years), and the rates of RN were determined, stratified by tumor size. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the odds of undergoing radical nephrectomy for clinical Stage T1a disease. RESULTS:Overall, 2733 patients (15%) were agedâ‰¥75 years. The use of radical nephrectomy for clinical Stage T1a renal cell carcinoma decreased during the study period for all patients (79% in 1998 to 49% in 2007). Overall, 66% of patients agedâ‰¥75 years underwent RN for their disease compared with 59% of patients aged<75 years (P<.001). For patients with tumors of â‰¤2 cm, 51% of those agedâ‰¥75 years underwent RN compared with 41% of the younger cohort. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ageâ‰¥75 years independently predicted the use of radical nephrectomy (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.29). A 1-year increase in age was associated with a 1% increase in the risk of undergoing RN (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Elderly patients with clinically localized small renal masses are treated with RN more frequently than younger patients. Additional studies should address the medical implications of the increased use of radical surgery within the geriatric population.