Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Beyond for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rare in children but presents a unique challenge as recent drug innovations have turned CML into a chronic disease with implications for treatment into adulthood. With the approval of newer-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in addition to imatinib, providers have more options for the treatment of chronic-phase CML (CML-CP) in children. The second-generation TKIs approved for use in children, nilotinib and dasatinib, have higher response rates than first-generation imatinib; however, overall survival rates appear to be the same. Even more options may soon become available with ongoing investigations into the use of bosutinib and ponatinib and other new agents in children. Possible long-term side effects of TKIs, including growth failure, should be carefully acknowledged by the treating provider. Although these known associations may not preclude treatment, providers should be aware of them to guide their management of pediatric patients with CML being treated long term with TKI therapy. Treatment-free remission is a desired goal for pediatric patients and providers alike, but current recommendations are for attempts at achieving this to be restricted to clinical study settings.
Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor after bone marrow transplant for sickle cell disease [Case Report]
As bone marrow transplant for sickle cell disease becomes increasingly common, long-term outcomes including secondary malignancies are beginning to be described. Here, we report a case of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor that occurred after allogeneic bone marrow transplant for sickle cell disease.
Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study
BACKGROUND:We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55â€ˆ000 to 199â€ˆ000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing countries. With a considerably expanded dataset from a large international collaboration, we aimed to estimate the global incidence, hospital admission rate, and mortality from RSV-ALRI episodes in young children in 2015. METHODS:We estimated the incidence and hospital admission rate of RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI) in children younger than 5 years stratified by age and World Bank income regions from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2016, and unpublished data from 76 high quality population-based studies. We estimated the RSV-ALRI incidence for 132 developing countries using a risk factor-based model and 2015 population estimates. We estimated the in-hospital RSV-ALRI mortality by combining in-hospital case fatality ratios with hospital admission estimates from hospital-based (published and unpublished) studies. We also estimated overall RSV-ALRI mortality by identifying studies reporting monthly data for ALRI mortality in the community and RSV activity. FINDINGS/RESULTS:We estimated that globally in 2015, 33Â·1 million (uncertainty range [UR] 21Â·6-50Â·3) episodes of RSV-ALRI, resulted in about 3Â·2 million (2Â·7-3Â·8) hospital admissions, and 59â€ˆ600 (48â€ˆ000-74â€ˆ500) in-hospital deaths in children younger than 5 years. In children younger than 6 months, 1Â·4 million (UR 1Â·2-1Â·7) hospital admissions, and 27â€ˆ300 (UR 20â€ˆ700-36â€ˆ200) in-hospital deaths were due to RSV-ALRI. We also estimated that the overall RSV-ALRI mortality could be as high as 118â€ˆ200 (UR 94â€ˆ600-149â€ˆ400). Incidence and mortality varied substantially from year to year in any given population. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Globally, RSV is a common cause of childhood ALRI and a major cause of hospital admissions in young children, resulting in a substantial burden on health-care services. About 45% of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to RSV-ALRI occur in children younger than 6 months. An effective maternal RSV vaccine or monoclonal antibody could have a substantial effect on disease burden in this age group. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.