Aldose reductase promotes diet-induced obesity via induction of senescence in subcutaneous adipose tissue
OBJECTIVE:Aldose reductase (AKR1B1 in humans; Akr1b3 in mice), a key enzyme of the polyol pathway, mediates lipid accumulation in the murine heart and liver. The study objective was to explore potential roles for AKR1B1/Akr1b3 in the pathogenesis of obesity and its complications. METHODS:The study employed mice treated with an inhibitor of aldose reductase or mice devoid of Akr1b3Â were used to determine their response to a high-fat diet. The study used subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived adipocytes to investigate mechanisms by which AKR1B1/Akr1b3 promotes diet-induced obesity. RESULTS:Increased expression of aldose reductase and senescence in the adipose tissue of humans and mice with obesity were demonstrated. Genetic deletion of Akr1b3 or pharmacological blockade of AKRIB3 with zopolrestat reduced high-fat-diet-induced obesity, attenuated markers of adipose tissue senescence, and increased lipolysis. CONCLUSIONS:AKR1B1/Akr1b3 modulation of senescence in subcutaneous adipose tissue contributes to aberrant metabolic responses to high-fat feeding. These data unveil new opportunities to target these pathways to combat obesity.
The RAGE/DIAPH1 Signaling Axis & Implications for the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Complications
Increasing evidence links the RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products)/DIAPH1 (Diaphanous 1) signaling axis to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. RAGE is a multi-ligand receptor and through these ligand-receptor interactions, extensive maladaptive effects are exerted on cell types and tissues targeted for dysfunction in hyperglycemia observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that RAGE ligands, acting as damage-associated molecular patterns molecules, or DAMPs, through RAGE may impact interferon signaling pathways, specifically through upregulation of IRF7 (interferon regulatory factor 7), thereby heralding and evoking pro-inflammatory effects on vulnerable tissues. Although successful targeting of RAGE in the clinical milieu has, to date, not been met with success, recent approaches to target RAGE intracellular signaling may hold promise to fill this critical gap. This review focuses on recent examples of highlights and updates to the pathobiology of RAGE and DIAPH1 in diabetic complications.
Glycation and a Spark of ALEs (Advanced Lipoxidation End Products) - Igniting RAGE/Diaphanous-1 and Cardiometabolic Disease
Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are on the rise world-wide; despite fervent advocacy for healthier diets and enhanced physical activity, these disorders persist unabated and, long-term, are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Numerous fundamental biochemical and molecular pathways participate in these events at incipient, mid- and advanced stages during atherogenesis and impaired regression of established atherosclerosis. It is proposed that upon the consumption of high fat/high sugar diets, the production of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) ligands, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), contribute to the development of foam cells, endothelial injury, vascular inflammation, and, ultimately, atherosclerosis and its consequences. RAGE/Diaphanous-1 (DIAPH1) increases macrophage foam cell formation; decreases cholesterol efflux and causes foam cells to produce and release damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) molecules, which are also ligands of RAGE. DAMPs stimulate upregulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 (IRF7) in macrophages, which exacerbates vascular inflammation and further perturbs cholesterol metabolism. Obesity and NAFLD, characterized by the upregulation of AGEs, ALEs and DAMPs in the target tissues, contribute to insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and type two diabetes. Once in motion, a vicious cycle of RAGE ligand production and exacerbation of RAGE/DIAPH1 signaling ensues, which, if left unchecked, augments cardiometabolic disease and its consequences. This Review focuses on RAGE/DIAPH1 and its role in perturbation of metabolism and processes that converge to augur cardiovascular disease.
Small-molecule antagonism of the interaction of the RAGE cytoplasmic domain with DIAPH1 reduces diabetic complications in mice
[Figure: see text].
A pilot open-label study of aldose reductase inhibition with AT-001 (caficrestat) in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection: Results from a registry-based matched-control analysis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Cardiometabolic disease may confer increased risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by activation of the aldose reductase pathway. We hypothesized that aldose reductase inhibition with AT-001 might reduce viral inflammation and risk of adverse outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted an open-label prospective phase 2 clinical trial to assess safety, tolerability and efficacy of AT-001 in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, history of diabetes mellitus and chronic heart disease. Eligible participants were prospectively enrolled and treated with AT-001 1500Â mg BID for up to 14 days. Safety, tolerability, survival and length of hospital stay (LOS) were collected from the electronic medical record and compared with data from two matched control groups (MC1 and MC2) selected from a deidentified registry of COVID-19 patients at the same institution. RESULTS:AT-001 was safe and well tolerated in the 10 participants who received the study drug. In-hospital mortality observed in the AT-001 group was 20% vs. 31% in MC1 and 27% in MC2. Mean LOS observed in the AT-001 group was 5 days vs. 10 days in MC1 and 25 days in MC2. CONCLUSIONS:In hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and co-morbid diabetes mellitus and heart disease, treatment with AT-001 was safe and well tolerated. Exposure to AT-001 was associated with a trend of reduced mortality and shortened LOS. While the observed trend did not reach statistical significance, the present study provides the rationale for investigating potential benefit of AT-001 in COVID 19 affected patients in future studies.
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Complications: The Epidemics Continue
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The cardiovascular complications of type 1 and 2 diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Extensive efforts have been made to maximize glycemic control; this strategy reduces certain manifestations of cardiovascular complications. There are drawbacks, however, as intensive glycemic control does not impart perennial protective benefits, and these efforts are not without potential adverse sequelae, such as hypoglycemic events. RECENT FINDINGS:Here, the authors have focused on updates into key areas under study for mechanisms driving these cardiovascular disorders in diabetes, including roles for epigenetics and gene expression, interferon networks, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Updates on the cardioprotective roles of the new classes of hyperglycemia-targeting therapies, the sodium glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors and the agonists of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor system, are reviewed. In summary, insights from ongoing research and the cardioprotective benefits of the newer type 2 diabetes therapies are providing novel areas for therapeutic opportunities in diabetes and CVD.
Journey to a Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Connection in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: With Stops Along the Way in the Lung, Heart, Blood Vessels, and Adipose Tissue
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people worldwide and the pandemic has yet to wane. Despite its associated significant morbidity and mortality, there are no definitive cures and no fully preventative measures to combat SARS-CoV-2. Hence, the urgency to identify the pathobiological mechanisms underlying increased risk for and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is mounting. One contributing factor, the accumulation of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, is a leading trigger for the activation of nuclear factor-kB and the IRF (interferon regulatory factors), such as IRF7. Activation of these pathways, particularly in the lung and other organs, such as the heart, contributes to a burst of cytokine release, which predisposes to significant tissue damage, loss of function, and mortality. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) binds damage-associated molecular patterns is expressed in the lung and heart, and in priming organs, such as the blood vessels (in diabetes) and adipose tissue (in obesity), and transduces the pathological signals emitted by damage-associated molecular patterns. It is proposed that damage-associated molecular pattern-RAGE enrichment in these priming tissues, and in the lungs and heart during active infection, contributes to the widespread tissue damage induced by SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, the RAGE axis might play seminal roles in and be a target for therapeutic intervention in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Inflammation Meets Metabolism: Roles for the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Axis in Cardiovascular Disease
Fundamental modulation of energy metabolism in immune cells is increasingly being recognized for the ability to impart important changes in cellular properties. In homeostasis, cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are enabled to respond rapidly to various forms of acute cellular and environmental stress, such as pathogens. In chronic stress milieus, these cells may undergo a re-programming, thereby triggering processes that may instigate tissue damage and failure of resolution. In settings of metabolic dysfunction, moieties such as excess sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) accumulate in the tissues and may form advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are signaling ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). In addition, cellular accumulation of cholesterol species such as that occurring upon macrophage engulfment of dead/dying cells, presents these cells with a major challenge to metabolize/efflux excess cholesterol. RAGE contributes to reduced expression and activities of molecules mediating cholesterol efflux. This Review chronicles examples of the roles that sugars and cholesterol, via RAGE, play in immune cells in instigation of maladaptive cellular signaling and the mediation of chronic cellular stress. At this time, emerging roles for the ligand-RAGE axis in metabolism-mediated modulation of inflammatory signaling in immune cells are being unearthed and add to the growing body of factors underlying pathological immunometabolism.
Aldose Reductase: An Emerging Target for Development of Interventions for Diabetic Cardiovascular Complications
Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous treatments for cardiovascular disease (CVD), for patients with diabetes, these therapies provide less benefit for protection from CVD. These considerations spur the concept that diabetes-specific, disease-modifying therapies are essential to identify especially as the diabetes epidemic continues to expand. In this context, high levels of blood glucose stimulate the flux via aldose reductase (AR) pathway leading to metabolic and signaling changes in cells of the cardiovascular system. In animal models flux via AR in hearts is increased by diabetes and ischemia and its inhibition protects diabetic and non-diabetic hearts from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In mouse models of diabetic atherosclerosis, human AR expression accelerates progression and impairs regression of atherosclerotic plaques. Genetic studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ALD2 (human AR gene) is associated with diabetic complications, including cardiorenal complications. This Review presents current knowledge regarding the roles for AR in the causes and consequences of diabetic cardiovascular disease and the status of AR inhibitors in clinical trials. Studies from both human subjects and animal models are presented to highlight the breadth of evidence linking AR to the cardiovascular consequences of diabetes.
A Pilot Open-label Study of Aldose Reductase Inhibition with AT-001 (caficrestat) in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 Infection: Results from a Registry-based Matched-control Analysis [Meeting Abstract]