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Preserve the nerve: microsurgical resection of peripheral nerve sheath tumors [Case Report]

Russell, Stephen M
Using a fascicle-sparing approach, schwannomas and nonplexiform neurofibromas can often be removed without causing neurological deficit or neuropathic pain. This article provides a step-by-step description of how to remove these benign tumors using microsurgical techniques
PMID: 17876241
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 74578

Role of frameless stereotaxy in the surgical treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: technique and outcomes in a controlled study of 44 consecutive patients

Russell, Stephen M; Woo, Henry H; Joseffer, Seth S; Jafar, Jafar J
OBJECTIVE: To describe a frameless stereotactic technique used to resect cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and to determine whether frameless stereotaxy during AVM resection could decrease operative times, minimize intraoperative blood losses, reduce postoperative complications, and improve surgical outcomes. METHODS: Data for 44 consecutive patients with surgically resected cerebral AVMs were retrospectively reviewed. The first 22 patients underwent resection without stereotaxy (Group 1), whereas the next 22 patients underwent resection with the assistance of a frameless stereotaxy system (Group 2). RESULTS: The patient characteristics, AVM morphological features, and percentages of preoperatively embolized cases were statistically similar for the two treatment groups. The mean operative time for Group 1 was 497 minutes, compared with 290 minutes for Group 2 (P = 0.0005). The estimated blood loss for Group 1 was 657 ml, compared with 311 ml for Group 2 (P = 0.0008). Complication rates, residual AVM incidences, and clinical outcomes were similar for the two groups. CONCLUSION: Frameless stereotaxy allows surgeons to 1) plan the optimal trajectory to an AVM, 2) minimize the skin incision and craniotomy sizes, and 3) confirm the AVM margins and identify deep vascular components during resection. These benefits of stereotaxy were most apparent for small, deep AVMs that were not visible on the surface of the brain. Frameless stereotaxy reduces the operative time and blood loss during AVM resection
PMID: 18813146
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 91723

Incidence and clinical evolution of postoperative deficits after volumetric stereotactic resection of glial neoplasms involving the supplementary motor area

Russell, Stephen M; Kelly, Patrick J
OBJECTIVE: We report the incidence and clinical evolution of postoperative deficits and supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome after volumetric stereotactic resection of glial neoplasms involving the posterior one-third of the superior frontal convolution. We investigated variables that may be associated with the occurrence of SMA syndrome. METHODS: The postoperative clinical status of 27 consecutive patients who underwent resection of SMA gliomas was retrospectively reviewed. Neurological examination results were recorded 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. The extent of tumor resection, the percentage of SMA resection, violation of the cingulate gyrus, and operative complications were tabulated. RESULTS: The overall incidence of SMA-related deficits was 26% (7 of 27 patients), with 3 patients having complete SMA syndrome and 4 patients having partial SMA syndrome. Two additional patients (7.5%) had other postoperative deficits, including one with mild facial weakness and one with transient aphasia. The resection of low-grade gliomas was associated with a higher incidence of SMA syndrome, an outcome that likely reflects more complete removal of functional SMA cortex in this subset of patients. Intraoperative monitoring localized the precentral sulcus within the preoperatively defined tumor volume in 6 (22%) of 27 patients, thereby precluding gross total resection. All 27 patients had excellent outcomes at the 6-month follow-up examination. CONCLUSION: When the resection of SMA gliomas is limited to the radiographic tumor boundaries, the incidence and severity of SMA syndrome may be minimized. With the use of these resection parameters, patients with high-grade SMA gliomas are unlikely to experience SMA syndrome. These findings are helpful in the preoperative counseling of patients who are to undergo cytoreductive resection of SMA gliomas
PMID: 18813154
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 94595

Complication avoidance in peripheral nerve surgery: preoperative evaluation of nerve injuries and brachial plexus exploration--part 1

Russell, Stephen M; Kline, David G
Complication avoidance during peripheral nerve surgery has received little attention in the neurosurgical literature. The goal of our two-part review is to discuss these possible complications, with this initial article highlighting the pitfalls associated with pre- and intraoperative assessment of nerve injuries, as well as the operative nuances used during brachial plexus exploration to minimize complications
PMID: 17041515
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 71405

Complication avoidance in peripheral nerve surgery: injuries, entrapments, and tumors of the extremities--part 2

Russell, Stephen M; Kline, David G
The goal of this two-part review is to discuss peripheral nerve surgery complications, along with the techniques and principles used to prevent them. In this second article, we concentrate on injuries, tumors, and entrapment of nerves in the extremities, including carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve compression at the elbow
PMID: 17041516
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 71406

Revascularizing the upper basilar circulation with saphenous vein grafts: operative technique and lessons learned

Russell, Stephen M; Post, Nicholas; Jafar, Jafar J
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to report our operative technique and lessons learned using saphenous vein conduits to revascularize the rostral basilar circulation (ie, bypass to the posterior cerebral or superior cerebellar arteries). We also review the evolution of this technique for the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and complex posterior fossa aneurysms. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for 8 consecutive patients undergoing rostral basilar circulation saphenous vein bypass grafts at our institution between 1989 and 2004 for the treatment of VBI or in conjunction with Hunterian ligation of complex posterior circulation aneurysms. The indications for treatment, pre- and postoperative neurologic status, angiographic results, operative complications, and long-term clinical outcomes were analyzed for each patient. RESULTS: With clinical and angiographic follow-up ranging from 3 months to 15 years, 7 of 8 bypasses remained patent, 3 of 3 aneurysms remained obliterated, and 4 of 5 patients with VBI experienced resolution of their preoperative symptoms. There were no surgery-related deaths, but 2 patients did experience major neurologic morbidity. The outcomes for the 217 total patients reported in the literature were as follows: 135 excellent (62%), 26 good (12%), 30 poor (14%), and 26 dead (12%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the risk of serious neurologic complications with this procedure, when one considers the natural history of untreated patients, saphenous vein revascularization of the rostral basilar circulation remains an acceptable option. Although surgical technique has varied, patient selection criteria, graft patency, and patient outcomes have been relatively constant over the past 25 years
PMID: 16935638
ISSN: 0090-3019
CID: 68938

Latency of a-herpesviruses is accompanied by a chronic inflammation in human trigeminal ganglia but not in dorsal root ganglia [Meeting Abstract]

Hufner, K; Derfuss, T; Herberger, S; Sunami, K; Russell, S; Sinicina, I; Arbusow, V; Strupp, M; Brandt, T; Theil, D
ISSN: 0340-5354
CID: 67554

Resection of parietal lobe gliomas: incidence and evolution of neurological deficits in 28 consecutive patients correlated to the location and morphological characteristics of the tumor [Case Report]

Russell, Stephen M; Elliott, Robert; Forshaw, David; Kelly, Patrick J; Golfinos, John G
OBJECT: The goal of this study is to report the incidence and clinical evolution of neurological deficits in patients who underwent resection of gliomas confined to the parietal lobe. METHODS: Patient demographics, findings of serial neurological examinations, tumor location and neuroimaging characteristics, extent of resection, and surgical outcomes were tabulated by reviewing inpatient and office records, as well as all pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 28 consecutive patients who underwent resection of a glial neoplasm found on imaging studies to be confined to the parietal lobe. Neurological deficits were correlated with hemispheric dominance, location of the lesion within the superior or inferior parietal lobules, subcortical extension, and involvement of the postcentral gyrus. The tumors were located in the dominant hemisphere in 18 patients (64%); had a mean diameter of 39 mm (range 14-69 mm); were isolated to the superior parietal lobule in six patients (21%) and to the inferior parietal lobule in eight patients (29%); and involved both lobules in 14 patients (50%). Gross-total resection, documented by MR imaging, was achieved in 24 patients (86%). Postoperatively, nine patients (32%) experienced new neurological deficits, whereas seven (25%) had an improvement in their preoperative deficit. A correlation was noted between larger tumors and the presence of neurological deficits both before and after resection. Postoperatively higher-level (association) parietal deficits were noted only in patients with tumors involving both the superior and inferior parietal lobules in the dominant hemisphere. At the 3-month follow-up examination, five of nine new postoperative deficits had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological deterioration and improvement occur after resection of parietal lobe gliomas. Parietal lobe association deficits, specifically the components of Gerstmann syndrome, are mostly associated with large tumors that involve both the superior and inferior parietal lobules of the dominant hemisphere. New hemineglect or sensory extinction was not noted in any patient following resection of lesions located in the nondominant hemisphere. Nevertheless, primary parietal lobe deficits (for example, a visual field loss or cortical sensory syndrome) occurred in patients regardless of hemispheric dominance
PMID: 16381187
ISSN: 0022-3085
CID: 61369

The microsurgical nuances of resecting tuberculum sellae meningiomas

Benjamin, Vallo; Russell, Stephen M
In a recent article, our experience and knowledge of the clinical picture, microsurgical anatomy, and long-term surgical outcome of resecting tuberculum sellae meningiomas was described in detail. We now present our surgical technique in a pictorial and video format for the benefit of neurosurgeons in training, as well as for general critique. Attention is given to the details of surgery: patient positioning, surgical approaches, technique of tumor removal, and postoperative care
PMID: 15794838
ISSN: 0148-396x
CID: 55974

Role of uncal resection in optimizing transsylvian access to the basilar apex: cadaveric investigation and preliminary clinical experience in eight patients

Post, Nicholas; Russell, Stephen M; Jafar, Jafar J
OBJECTIVE: The pretemporal approach has gained popularity for the treatment of basilar apex aneurysms. However, it requires the sacrifice of anterior temporal bridging veins to allow posterior temporal lobe retraction and, for patients with dominant pretemporal venous drainage, has the attendant risk of venous hypertension, hemorrhagic venous infarction, or seizures postoperatively. Alternatively, we have found that splitting the sylvian fissure, resecting the uncus, and applying posterolateral retraction to the medial temporal lobe provides a similar exposure to the basilar apex while preserving the anterior temporal bridging veins. To evaluate the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach to the basilar apex, we report our initial clinical results using this exposure in eight consecutive patients. A morphometric cadaveric analysis comparing this approach with the pretemporal approach was also performed. METHODS: For the clinical study, all hospital charts and imaging studies were retrospectively reviewed for patients undergoing the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach for the treatment of an upper basilar trunk aneurysm between July 2000 and July 2002. In the anatomic study, six formalin-fixed cadaver specimens were used. Two sequential exposures of the basilar apex were performed on each specimen side. First, the pretemporal exposure was performed with anteroposterior temporal lobe retraction. Next, after the temporal lobe had been allowed to return to normal anatomic position, the retractor was repositioned on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe superficial to the uncus, and a 10 x 10 x 15-mm volume of uncus was removed. Morphometric measurements were performed for each exposure. RESULTS: Four basilar bifurcation and four superior cerebellar segment aneurysms in eight consecutive patients were successfully clip-ligated by use of the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach. All patients had temporal bridging veins that were preserved, as documented by angiography and operative reports. No patient developed a venous infarction or new postoperative seizures, with a mean follow-up of 9.75 months (range, 0.5-28 mo). The cadaveric analysis revealed that in addition to providing a similar exposure of the upper basilar complex, the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach provided additional exposure of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries compared with the pretemporal approach. CONCLUSION: When approaching the basilar bifurcation, the transsylvian, trans-uncal approach provides superior exposure of the ipsilateral superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries compared with the pretemporal approach, while preserving the anterior temporal bridging veins. This approach is most valuable in patients with dominant temporal venous drainage or when additional exposure of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral or superior cerebellar arteries is required
PMID: 15794824
ISSN: 0148-396x
CID: 56059