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Radiation-Induced Left Main Coronary Artery Stenosis in a Patient with Atretic Internal Mammary Arteries [Case Report]

Dogra, Siddhant; Mahajan, Asha M; Jung, Albert; Attubato, Michael; Saric, Muhamed; Shah, Alan
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a known potential complication of thoracic radiation treatment that typically affects the proximal segments of the coronary arteries, requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We present a case of acute coronary syndrome occurring in a 57-year-old man with prior thoracic radiation therapy following resection of a chest wall chondrosarcoma. Coronary angiogram demonstrated significant areas of stenosis in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and ostial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The patient was also found to have atretic bilateral internal mammary arteries as a consequence of his radiation therapy, rendering them unsuitable as grafts. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was thus performed with a successful outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of radiation-induced CAD of the LMCA with atretic internal mammary arteries treated successfully with PCI.
PMID: 32455030
ISSN: 2090-6404
CID: 4451702

Coronary stent thrombosis in patients undergoing multidigit replantation

Jacobs J; Shah A; Zinn A; Levine J
OBJECTIVE:: The development of drug-eluting stents has decreased the rate of in-stent restenosis. However, there have been reports of late stent thrombosis in patients with drug-eluting stents, especially when dual antiplatelet therapy is interrupted. The high mortality rate associated with cardiac stent thrombosis has led to recent recommendations regarding duration of antiplatelet therapy as well as timing of elective surgery in patients with both drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents. However, in patients requiring emergency operations, delaying surgery is not an option. DATA SOURCES:: In a retrospective review of 65 patients undergoing replantation from 2005 to 2010, only two patients with coronary stents presented, both with drug-eluting stents. Both of these patients developed acute in-stent thrombosis postoperatively on days 5 and 2 despite continuing dual antiplatelet therapy while undergoing multidigit replantation. CONCLUSIONS:: Several factors including large transfusion requirements and the complex pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel may have played a role. These cases bring to light the increasing number of patients with indwelling drug-eluting stents in whom the need for massive surgical or trauma type management will become more frequent
PMID: 21926607
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 139042

Relation of Clinical, Echocardiographic and Electrocardiographic Features of Cardiac Amyloidosis to the Presence of the Transthyretin V122I Allele in Older African-American Men

Jacobson, Daniel; Tagoe, Clement; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Shah, Alan; Koziol, James; Buxbaum, Joel
Previous studies have shown that 3% to 4% of African Americans carry an amyloidogenic allele of the human serum protein transthyretin (TTR V122I). The allele appears to have an absolute anatomic risk for cardiac amyloid deposition after 65 years of age. In this study, a case-control comparison was performed of clinical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic characteristics of 23 age at risk carriers of the amyloidogenic allele and 46 age-, gender-, and ethnically matched noncarriers being evaluated for cardiac disease using standard clinical testing. The 2 groups were matched for blood pressure and the cardiac ejection fraction. None of the subjects had a prestudy diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Carriers of the amyloidogenic allele were found to have statistically significant increases in the occurrence of many of the echocardiographic features of cardiac amyloidosis relative to the noncarriers and a higher frequency of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The observations suggest that TTR V122I represents a substantial risk for clinically significant cardiac amyloidosis in elderly African American men, behaving as an age-dependent autosomal dominant disease-associated allele. The diagnosis is difficult to make but can be suspected in African Americans aged >60 years on the basis of age, echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction, and interventricular septal thickening, even in the absence of more recently available sophisticated echocardiographic techniques for evaluating long-axis function and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Positive results for the amyloidogenic TTR V122I allele support the diagnosis and define the origin of the disease, which can be confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy
PMID: 21600538
ISSN: 1879-1913
CID: 136495

Percutaneous PFO closure for the prevention of recurrent brain abscess [Case Report]

LaBarbera, Matthew; Berkowitz, M Joshua; Shah, Alan; Slater, James
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) can act as a conduit between the venous and arterial circulations, allowing right-to-left shunting and bypass of the pulmonary circulation. Brain abscess may develop as a result of paradoxical embolism of organisms through a PFO. In this small series, we report on the closure of PFO for the prevention of recurrent brain abscess. Only prospective, randomized trials comparing PFO closure to conservative therapy could provide a definitive answer as to the optimal strategy for preventing recurrent cerebral abscess
PMID: 17086523
ISSN: 1522-1946
CID: 70874

Usefulness of myocardial perfusion echocardiography to identify obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with abnormal ventricular septal motion

Spevack, Daniel M; Shoyeb, Abu; Yoon, Andrew J; Gordon, Garet M; Matros, Todd; Reynolds, Harmony A; Shah, Alan; Tunick, Paul A; Kronzon, Itzhak
Twenty-three patients who had septal wall motion abnormalities and who underwent angiography within 2 weeks were evaluated by myocardial perfusion echocardiography. Mean perfusion score (plateau video intensity times the wash-in rate) was lower in segments that were supplied by obstructed coronary arteries in real time (7.5 vs 22.6 dB/s, p <0.005) and with end-systolic triggering (8.6 vs 20.9 dB/s, p <0.001). Lower mean septal perfusion scores (<12 dB/s) were seen in 14 of 16 patients who had obstructive septal coronary artery disease, and normal mean septal perfusion scores were seen in 6 of 7 patients who did not have obstructive septal coronary artery disease
PMID: 15781014
ISSN: 0002-9149
CID: 58970

Comparison of image quality between a narrow caliber transesophageal echocardiographic probe and the standard size probe during intraoperative evaluation

Reynolds, Harmony R; Spevack, Daniel M; Shah, Alan; Applebaum, Robert M; Kanchuger, Mark; Tunick, Paul A; Kronzon, Itzhak
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become an integral part of the evaluation and monitoring of patients during cardiac operation. Until recently, the smallest TEE probe with multiplane imaging measured 13 mm in diameter. This size is now standard for adult TEE probes. Recently, a new TEE probe has become available (MiniMulti TEE probe, Philips Medical Systems, Andover, Mass), which has a diameter of 8 mm. Although using a smaller probe is attractive, the quality of images it generates when used in adults has not yet been examined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare TEE studies done with both probes. METHODS: After informed consent was obtained, full intraoperative TEE studies were performed in 20 patients with a small pediatric probe. The study was then repeated using a standard adult probe. The studies were read in random order by two experienced echocardiographers blinded to probe used. For each study, 18 anatomic cardiac structures and 5 Doppler patterns were subjectively graded as excellent (1), good (2), fair (3), or poor (4) in quality. The average score for each structure or Doppler profile was computed for each probe. RESULTS: The average score for all findings was lower (better) for the adult TEE probe (1.4 +/- 0.4 vs 1.7 +/- 0.4; P =.003). When each finding was compared separately, several cardiac structures (left ventricle [LV], pericardium, right ventricle [RV], interatrial septum, left atrium, left atrial appendage, mitral valve, aortic valve) had better scores with the adult probe, and the differences for the LV and RV were larger than those for the other findings (LV scores differed by 0.7, P =.0004; RV scores differed by 0.5, P =.01). There was no significant difference between probes when evaluating venous structures (coronary sinus, superior vena cava, pulmonary vein), the thoracic aorta, or the right atrium or tricuspid valve. In addition, Doppler patterns were not significantly different with the two probes. There were two findings that were missed with the small probe and seen with the adult probe (one aortic plaque and one left atrial appendage thrombus). CONCLUSIONS: In the adult, the larger probe provides better images, particularly of the RV and LV. In addition, important findings may be missed with the smaller probe. However, if the adult probe cannot be passed, the pediatric probe is a reasonable alternative
PMID: 15452470
ISSN: 0894-7317
CID: 45390

Frequency of severe renal artery stenosis in patients with severe thoracic aortic plaque

Reynolds, Harmony R; Tunick, Paul A; Benenstein, Ricardo J; Nakra, Navin C; Shah, Alan; Spevack, Daniel M; Kronzon, Itzhak
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is an underdiagnosed disorder and a treatable etiology of hypertension and renal insufficiency. All patients were referred for a transesophageal echocardiogram for various indications. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in 69 patients, 43 with severe thoracic aortic plaque (> or =4 mm) and 26 controls with no or mild plaque (< or =2 mm). Severe RAS (> or =60%) was defined as flow velocity > or =1.8 m/s and a renal:aortic ratio of > or =3.5. There were 8 cases of RAS (all severe) in the 43 patients with severe aortic plaque (19% vs 0% of controls; p = 0.02). Severe plaque (p = 0.02) and hypertension (p = 0.03) were correlated with RAS. On multivariate analysis, severe plaque (p = 0.017) and hypertension (p = 0.002) remained independently correlated with RAS. In a paired analysis, matched for age and gender (McNemar), severe plaque was significantly associated with RAS (p = 0.008). Severe thoracic aortic plaque is strongly associated with RAS, which is found in 19% of patients with severe plaque. Patients found to have severe aortic plaque on transesophageal echocardiography should be screened for RAS
PMID: 15374808
ISSN: 0002-9149
CID: 45391

Clinical improvement with repeated courses of intravenous B-type natriuretic peptide in refractory heart failure [Case Report]

Spevack, Daniel M; Matros, Todd; Shah, Alan; Dweck, Ezra; Tunick, Paul A
PMID: 15302009
ISSN: 1388-9842
CID: 44659

Diastolic right-to-left shunting in a patient with atrial septal defect and pericardial tamponade [Case Report]

Shah, Alan; Tunick, Paul A; Kronzon, Itzhak
We present the case of a patient with an atrial septal defect who presented with hypotension, hypoxia, and cyanosis as a result of pericardial tamponade. The classic findings of pulsus paradoxus and low measured right heart output were not present. Echocardiography demonstrated the atrial septal defect, pericardial effusion, and diastolic chamber collapse. Furthermore, Doppler study showed not only a large left-to-right shunt but also a diastolic right-to-left shunt, which explained the patient's hypoxia
PMID: 15122187
ISSN: 0894-7317
CID: 43004

Isolated subclavian artery aneurysm: evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography [Case Report]

Shah, Alan; Katz, Edward S; Stern, Alexandra; Tunick, Paul A; Kronzon, Itzhak
A 50-year-old man was evaluated following a motor vehicle accident. Chest X-ray showed a widened mediastinum. Transesophageal echocardiography was helpful in identifying the left subclavian artery and in demonstrating an isolated subclavian artery aneurysm. The TEE findings correlated well with the results of chest CT. Using TEE for the identification of the aortic branches in patients with chest trauma may be critical
PMID: 14717726
ISSN: 0742-2822
CID: 43006