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Redefining Early Neurological Improvement After Reperfusion Therapy in Stroke

Agarwal, Shashank; Cutting, Shawna; Grory, Brian Mac; Burton, Tina; Jayaraman, Mahesh; McTaggart, Ryan; Reznik, Michael; Scher, Erica; Chang, Andrew D; Frontera, Jennifer; Lord, Aaron; Rostanski, Sara; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Furie, Karen; Yaghi, Shadi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Early neurologic improvement (ENI) in patients treated with alteplase has been shown to correlate with functional outcome. However, the definition of ENI remains controversial and has varied across studies. We hypothesized that ENI defined as a percentage change in the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (percent change NIHSS score) at 24-hours would better correlate with favorable outcomes at 3 months than ENI defined as the change in NIHSS score (delta NIHSS score) at 24 hours. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected single-center quality improvement data was performed of all acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with alteplase. We examined delta NIHSS score and percent change NIHSS score in unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models as predictors of a favorable outcome at 3 months (defined as mRS 0-1). RESULTS:Among 586 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 194 (33.1%) had a favorable outcome at 3 months. In fully adjusted models, both delta NIHSS score (OR per point decrease 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.36) and percent change NIHSS score (OR per 10 percent decrease 1.17; 95% CI 1.12-1.22) were associated with favorable functional outcome at 3 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve comparison showed that the area under the ROC curve for percent change NIHSS score (.755) was greater than delta NIHSS score (.613) or admission NIHSS (.694). CONCLUSIONS:Percentage change in NIHSS score may be a better surrogate marker of ENI and functional outcome in AIS patients after receiving acute thrombolytic therapy. More studies are needed to confirm our findings.
PMID: 31836356
ISSN: 1532-8511
CID: 4241792

Safety and Feasibility of a Rapid Outpatient Management Strategy for Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke: The Rapid Access Vascular Evaluation-Neurology (RAVEN) Approach

Chang, Bernard P; Rostanski, Sara; Willey, Joshua; Miller, Eliza C; Shapiro, Steven; Mehendale, Rachel; Kummer, Benjamin; Navi, Babak B; Elkind, Mitchell S V
STUDY OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:Although most transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients in US emergency departments (EDs) are admitted, experience in other countries suggests that timely outpatient evaluation of transient ischemic attack and minor stroke can be safe. We assess the feasibility and safety of a rapid outpatient stroke clinic for transient ischemic attack and minor stroke: Rapid Access Vascular Evaluation-Neurology (RAVEN). METHODS:Transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients presenting to the ED with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 5 or less and nondisabling deficit were assessed for potential discharge to RAVEN with a protocol incorporating social and medical criteria. Outpatient evaluation by a vascular neurologist, including vessel imaging, was performed within 24 hours at the RAVEN clinic. Participants were evaluated for compliance with clinic attendance and 90-day recurrent transient ischemic attack and minor stroke and hospitalization rates. RESULTS:Between December 2016 and June 2018, 162 transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients were discharged to RAVEN. One hundred fifty-four patients (95.1%) appeared as scheduled and 101 (66%) had a final diagnosis of transient ischemic attack and minor stroke. Two patients (1.3%) required hospitalization (one for worsening symptoms and another for intracranial arterial stenosis caused by zoster) at RAVEN evaluation. Among the 101 patients with confirmed transient ischemic attack and minor stroke, 18 (19.1%) had returned to an ED or been admitted at 90 days. Five were noted to have had recurrent neurologic symptoms diagnosed as transient ischemic attack (4.9%), whereas one had a recurrent stroke (0.9%). No individuals with transient ischemic attack and minor stroke died, and none received thrombolytics or thrombectomy, during the interval period. These 90-day outcomes were similar to historical published data on transient ischemic attack and minor stroke. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rapid outpatient management appears a feasible and safe strategy for transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients evaluated in the ED, with recurrent stroke and transient ischemic attack rates comparable to historical published data.
PMID: 31326206
ISSN: 1097-6760
CID: 3987812

The Addition of Atrial Fibrillation to the Los Angeles Motor Scale May Improve Prediction of Large Vessel Occlusion

Narwal, Priya; Chang, Andrew D; Grory, Brian Mac; Jayaraman, Mahesh; Madsen, Tracy; Paolucci, Gino; Cutting, Shawna; Burton, Tina; Dakay, Katarina; Schomer, Ashley; Rostanski, Sara; Noorian, Ali Reza; Nour, May; Liebeskind, David S; Saver, Jeffrey; Furie, Karen; Yaghi, Shadi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:There is evidence suggesting that Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) ≥ 4 predicts large vessel occlusion (LVO). We aim to determine whether atrial fibrillation (AF) can improve the ability of LAMS in predicting LVO. METHODS:We included consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke admitted within 24 hours from last known normal time who underwent emergent vascular imaging using a computerized tomography angiography (CTA) of the head and neck. LVO was defined as intracranial internal carotid artery, proximal middle cerebral artery (M1 or proximal M2 segment), or basilar occlusion. LAMS was determined in the emergency department upon arrival. Univariate and multivariable models were performed to identify predictors of LVO and to determine whether AF improves the ability of LAMS to predict LVO. RESULTS:Among 1,234 patients admitted with ischemic stroke, 862 underwent emergent vascular imaging (69.8%) out of which 374 (43.4%) had evidence of LVO and 207 (24%) underwent mechanical thrombectomy. In multivariable models, predictors of LVO were LAMS (OR 1.42 per one point increase 95% CI 1.29-1.57) and AF (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.26-3.02, P < .001). We developed the LAMS-AF that includes the LAMS score and adds two points if AF is present. In this analysis, LAMS-AF (AUC .78) had improved prediction over LAMS (AUC .76) in predicting LVO and lead to reclassification of 8/68 patients (11.8%) with LAMS = 3 group into the high-risk LVO group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In patients with LAMS = 3, using the LAMS-AF score may improve the ability of LAMS in predicting LVO. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
PMID: 30900276
ISSN: 1552-6569
CID: 3749462

Clinical Decision-Making for Thrombolysis of Acute Minor Stroke Using Adaptive Conjoint Analysis

Liberman, Ava L; Pinto, Daniel; Rostanski, Sara K; Labovitz, Daniel L; Naidech, Andrew M; Prabhakaran, Shyam
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:There is practice variability in the treatment of patients with minor ischemic stroke with thrombolysis. We sought to determine which clinical factors physicians prioritize in thrombolysis decision-making for minor stroke using adaptive conjoint analysis. Methods/UNASSIGNED:tests. Statistical significance was set at α = .05. Results/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-four participants completed the survey; 61% were vascular neurologists and 93% worked in academic centers. All neurological deficits were ranked higher than age, premorbid status, or potential contraindications to thrombolysis. Differences between each successive mean preference weight were significant: motor (31.7%, standard deviation [SD]: 9.5), language/speech (24.1%, SD: 9.6), other neurological deficits (16.6%, SD: 6.4), premorbid status (12.9%, SD: 6.6), age (10.1%, SD: 6.3), and potential thrombolysis contraindication (4.7%, SD: 4.4). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:In a conjoint analysis, surveyed US physicians in academic practice assigned greater weight to motor and speech/language deficits than other neurological deficits, patient age, relative contraindications to thrombolysis, and premorbid disability when deciding to thrombolyse patients with minor stroke.
PMID: 30671158
ISSN: 1941-8744
CID: 3609592

Impact of Patient Language on Emergency Medical Service Use and Prenotification for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Rostanski, Sara K; Kummer, Benjamin R; Miller, Eliza C; Marshall, Randolph S; Williams, Olajide; Willey, Joshua Z
Background and Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Use of emergency medical services (EMS) is associated with decreased door-to-needle time in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Whether patient language affects EMS utilization and prenotification in AIS has been understudied. We sought to characterize EMS use and prenotification by patient language among intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) tissue plasminogen (IV-tPA) treated patients at a single center with a large Spanish-speaking patient population. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who received IV-tPA in our emergency department between July 2011 and June 2016. Baseline characteristics, EMS use, and prenotification were compared between English- and Spanish-speaking patients. Logistic regression was used to measure the association between patient language and EMS use. Results/UNASSIGNED:= .8). In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, and NIHSS, Spanish speakers remained more likely to use EMS (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.0). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Emergency medical services usage was higher in Spanish speakers compared to English speakers among AIS patients treated with IV-tPA; however, prenotification rates did not differ. Future studies should evaluate differences in EMS utilization according to primary language and ethnicity.
PMID: 30671157
ISSN: 1941-8744
CID: 3609962

A hospital\s perspective: economic evaluation of hospitalization vs rapid outpatient evaluation for TIA and minor strokes [Meeting Abstract]

Shapiro, Steven; Luna, Jorge; Mehendale, Rachel; Navi, Babak; Kummer, Benjamin; Rostanski, Sara; Rosen, Claudia; Vawdrey, David; Chang, Bernard; Miller, Eliza; Elkind, Mitchell; Willey, Joshua
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4029042

Factors Associated With Outpatient Neurology Clinic Follow-Up After Acute Stroke Hospitalization at a Large Public City Hospital [Meeting Abstract]

Tiu, Jonathan; Allen, Alexander; Finamore, Jon Marc; Yang, Dixon; Rostanski, Sara K.
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4029052

Evaluation of A Rapid Outpatient Stroke Clinic for TIA and Minor Stroke Patients in the Emergency Department [Meeting Abstract]

Mehendale, Rachel; Shapiro, Steven; Chang, Bernard; Miller, Eliza; Rostanski, Sara; Kummer, Benjamin; Willey, Joshua; Elkind, Mitchell
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4029072

A Hospital's Perspective: Economic Evaluation of Hospitalization vs Rapid Outpatient Evaluation for TIA and Minor Strokes. [Meeting Abstract]

Shapiro, Steven D.; Luna, Jorge; Mehendale, Rachel; Navi, Babak; Kummer, Benjamin; Rostanski, Sara; Rosen, Claudia; Vawdrey, David; Chang, Bernard P.; Miller, Eliza; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Willey, Joshua
ISSN: 0039-2499
CID: 4047922

Patients With TIA and Minor Stroke: Rapid Access Vascular Evaluation-Neurology (RAVEN). [Meeting Abstract]

Chang, Bernard P.; Willey, Joshua; Miller, Eliza; Mehendale, Rachel; Rostanski, Sara; Shapiro, Steven D.; Kummer, Benjamin; Elkind, Mitchell S.
ISSN: 0039-2499
CID: 4047932