Predictability of the sports concussion assessment tool-third edition (SCAT3) on cognitive performance measures [Meeting Abstract]
Research Objectives: To investigate the associations between the SCAT3 Cognitive factor with neuropsychological performance measures. Design: Retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with concussions. Setting: Outpatient concussion center in a major urban medical center. Participants: Participants were 89 patients diagnosed with uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injuries/concussions ages 18 years or older referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Interventions: Neuropsychological assessment. Main Outcome Measures: Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT3), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Digit Span Backward Subscale, WAIS-IV Coding, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency, California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLT-II) Long Delayed Free Recall, Stroop Color and Word Interference score, Trails Making Test B (TMTB). Results: Separated hierarchical multiple regression analyses were computed. Results indicated that a higher SCAT3 cognitive measure was predictive of lower performance on Digit Span Backward Scaled Score (T= -.32, R2 =.23, p=.005), Coding (T= -.31, R2 =.37, p=.004), CVLT-II Long Delayed Recall (T= -.22, R2 =.36, p=.030), and TMTB (T= -.41, R2 =.27, p < .001) after controlling for years of education, gender, age, numbers of prior concussions, and loss of consciousness. Conclusions: Neuropsychological measures examining concentration, visuomotor processing speed, memory, and set shifting are associated with the SCAT3 Cognitive Factor score. The SCAT3 may be a useful tool to identify individuals who may benefit from follow-up and management of cognitive symptoms. While the SCAT3 was designed for athletes, it may be helpful in the general population
Rethinking Male Drinking: Traditional Masculine Ideologies, Gender-Role Conflict, and Drinking Motives
The present study aims to contribute to the body of literature linking traditional masculine ideologies and drinking. Previous studies found that traditional masculine ideologies were associated with numerous negative outcomes such as alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems (R. O. de Visser & J. A. Smith, 2007, Alcohol consumption and masculine identity among young men, Psychology & Health, 22, 595-614. This study hypothesizes a theoretical path model suggesting that traditional masculine ideologies are associated with gender role conflict (J. M. O'Neil, 2008, Summarizing 25 years of research on men's gender role conflict using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New research paradigms and clinical implications, The Counseling Psychologist, 36, 358-445), which is related to drinking motives (M. L. Cooper, 1994, Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model, Psychological Assessment, 6, 117-128), and then to alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems. Participants were 109 males enrolled in an addiction intensive outpatient program. Path analysis results showed that the proposed model fit the data well. Traditional masculine ideologies were associated with gender role conflict. Moreover, coping and enhancement motives were found to mediate the relationship between gender role conflict and alcohol-related problems, while coping motives mediated gender role conflict and alcohol consumption. These findings provide a preliminary model linking traditional masculine ideologies to gender role conflict, which in turn contribute to alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems through drinking motives.