What a Junior-Senior Partnership Should Look Like Today: A Young Arthroplasty Group Committee Editorial [Editorial]
Does the Primary Surgical Approach Matter when Choosing the Approach for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Multiple surgical approaches are used for primary total hip arthroplasty (pTHA) and revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). This study sought to investigate prevalence of discordance of pTHA and rTHA surgical approaches and to evaluate the impact of approach concordance on postoperative outcomes. METHODS:A multi-center retrospective review of patients who underwent rTHA from 2000 to 2021 was conducted at three large, urban academic centers. Patients who had a minimum one-year follow-up post-rTHA were included and grouped based on whether they received pTHA via a posterior (PA), direct anterior (DA), or laterally-based (DL) approach, and by concordance of index rTHA approach with their pTHA approach. Of the 917 patients studied, 839 (91.5%) were included in the concordant cohort and 78 (8.5%) in the discordant cohort. Patient demographics, operative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes were compared. RESULTS:Discordance was most prevalent in the DA-pTHA subset (29.5%), compared to the DL-pTHA subset (14.7%) or PA-pTHA subset (3.7%). Discordance varied significantly between primary approaches among all revisions, with DA-pTHA patients having the highest discordance rate for patients revised for aseptic loosening (46.3%, P<0.001), fracture (22.2%, P<0.001), and dislocation (33.3%, P<0.001). There were no differences between groups in dislocation rate, re-revision for infection, or re-revision for fracture. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of this multicenter study showed patients who received pTHA via the DA were more likely to receive rTHA via a discordant approach compared to other primary approaches. Since approach concordance did not impact dislocation, infection, or fracture rates after rTHA, surgeons can feel reassured using a separate approach for rTHA.
Selective Use of Dual-Mobility Did Not Significantly Reduce 90-Day Readmissions or Reoperations after Total Hip Arthroplasty
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Selective use of dual mobility (DM) implants in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients at high dislocation risk has been proposed. However, evidence-based utilization thresholds have not been defined. We explored whether surgeon-specific rates of DM utilization correlate with rates of readmission and reoperation for dislocation. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 14,818 primary THA procedures performed at a single institution between 2011 and 2021, including 14,310 FB and 508 DM implant constructs. Outcomes including 90-day readmissions and reoperations were compared between patients who had fixed-bearing (FB) and DM implants. Cases were then stratified into three groups based on the attending surgeon's rate of DM utilization (≤1, 1 to 10, or >10%) and outcomes were compared. RESULTS:There were no differences in 90-day outcomes between FB and DM implant groups. Surgeon frequency of DM utilization ranged from 0 to 43%. There were 48 surgeons (73%) who used DM in ≤ 1% of cases, 11 (17%) in 1 to 10% of cases, and 7 (10%) in >10% of cases. The 90-day rates of readmission (7.3 vs 7.6 vs 7.2%, P=0.7) and reoperation (3.4 vs 3.9 vs 3.8%, P=0.3), as well as readmission for instability (0.5 vs 0.6 vs 0.8%, P=0.2) and reoperation for instability (0.5 vs 0.5 vs 0.8%, P=0.6), did not statistically differ between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Selective DM utilization did not reduce 90-day readmissions or reoperations following primary THA. Other dislocation-mitigation strategies (i.e., surgical approach, computer navigation, robotic assistance, and large diameter fixed-bearings) may have masked any benefits of selective DM use.
Effects of Dexamethasone on Postoperative Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Study
BACKGROUND:Concerns regarding the effects of dexamethasone on diabetics' glucose control have stymied its use following total joint arthroplasty. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 2 intravenous (IV) perioperative doses of dexamethasone on glucose levels, pain scores, and inpatient opioid consumption following total joint arthroplasty in diabetic patients. METHODS:A retrospective review of 523 diabetic patients who underwent primary elective THA and 953 diabetic patients who underwent primary elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between May 6, 2020, and December 17, 2021 was conducted. Patients who received 1 dose (1D) of perioperative dexamethasone 10 mg IV were compared to patients who received 2 doses (2D). Primary outcomes included postoperative glucose levels, opioid consumption as morphine milligram equivalences, postoperative pain as Verbal Rating Scale pain scores, and postoperative complications. RESULTS:The 2D TKA cohort had significantly greater average and maximum blood glucose levels from 24 to 60 hours compared to the 1D TKA cohort. The 2D THA cohort had significantly greater average blood glucose levels at 24 to 36 hours compared to the 1D THA cohort. However, the 2D TKA group had significantly reduced opioid consumption from 24 to 72 hours and reduced total consumption compared to the 1D TKA group. Verbal Rating Scale pain scores did not differ between cohorts for both TKA and THA at any interval. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Administration of a second perioperative dose of dexamethasone was associated with increased postoperative blood glucose levels. However, the observed effect on glucose control may not outweigh the clinical benefits of a second perioperative dose of glucocorticoids.
Comparison of Aseptic Partial- and Full-Component Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty
BACKGROUND:Revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) can be performed with isolated tibial, isolated femoral, and combined tibial and femoral component exchange for different indications. Replacement of only 1 fixed component in rTKA leads to shorter operative times and decreased complexity. We sought to compare functional outcomes and rates of rerevision in patients undergoing partial and full rTKA. METHODS:This retrospective study examined all aseptic rTKA patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years in a single center between September 2011 and December 2019. Patients were divided into two groups: full rTKA (F-rTKA) if both components (femoral and tibial) were revised and partial rTKA (P-rTKA) if only 1 component was revised. A total of 293 patients (P-rTKA = 76, F-rTKA = 217) were included. RESULTS:P-rTKA patients had significantly shorter surgical time (109 ± 37 Versus. 141 ± 44 minutes, P < .001). At mean follow-up of 4.2 (range 2.2-6.2) years, rerevision rates did not significantly differ between groups (11.8 Versus. 16.1%, P = .358). Improvements in postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Scale (KOOS), Joint Replacement scores were similar as well (P = .100 and P = .140, respectively). For patients undergoing rTKA due to aseptic loosening, freedom from rerevision due to aseptic loosening was similar between groups (100 Versus. 97.8%, P = .321). For patients undergoing rTKA due to instability, freedom from rerevision due to instability did not significantly differ as well (100 Versus. 98.1%, P = .683). In the P-rTKA cohort, freedom from all-cause and aseptic revision of preserved components was 96.1% and 98.7% at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION:Compared to F-rTKA, P-rTKA yielded similar functional outcomes and implant survivorship with shorter surgical time. When indications and component compatibility allow for such a procedure, surgeons can expect good outcomes when performing P-rTKA.
The Effect of Prosthetic Joint Infection on Work Status and Quality of Life: A Multicenter, International Study
BACKGROUND:Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequent revision surgeries may affect patients' social and physical health, ability to complete daily activities, and disability status. This study sought to determine how PJI affects patients' quality of life through patient-reported outcome measures with minimum 1-year follow-up. METHODS:Patients who suffered PJI following primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) from 2012 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for acute or chronic PJI, underwent revision TJA surgery, and had at least 1 year of follow-up. Patients were surveyed regarding how PJI affected their work and disability status, as well as their mental and physical health. Outcome measures were compared between acute and chronic PJIs. In total, 318 patients (48.4% total knee arthroplasty and 51.6% total hip arthroplasty) met inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Following surgical treatment for knee and hip PJI, a substantial proportion of patients reported that they were unable to negotiate stairs (20.5%), had worse physical health (39.6%), and suffered worse mental health (25.2%). A high proportion of patients reported worse quality of life (38.5%) and social satisfaction (35.3%) following PJI. Worse reported patient-reported outcome measures including patients' ability to complete daily physical activities were found among patients undergoing treatment for chronic PJI, and also, 23% of patients regretted their initial decision to pursue primary TJA. CONCLUSIONS:A PJI negatively affects patients' ability to carry out everyday activities. This patient population is prone to report challenges overcoming disability and returning to work. Patients should be adequately educated regarding the risk of PJI to decrease later potential regrets. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Case series (IV).
Aspirin thromboprophylaxis following primary total knee arthroplasty is associated with a lower rate of early prosthetic joint infection compared with other agents
BACKGROUND:Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Aspirin has been shown to be effective at reducing rates of VTE. In select patients, more potent thromboprophylaxis is indicated, which has been associated with increased rates of bleeding and wound complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thromboprophylaxis choice on rates of early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) following TKA. METHODS:A review of 11,547 primary TKA patients from 2013 to 2019 at a single academic orthopaedic hospital was conducted. The primary outcome measure was PJI within 90 days of surgery as measured by Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. There were 59 (0.5%) patients diagnosed with early PJI. Chi-square and Welch-Two Sample t-tests were used to determine statistically significant relationships between thromboprophylaxis and demographic variables. Significance was set at p<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index was performed to identify and control for independent risk factors for early PJI. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant difference in the rates of early PJI between the aspirin and non-aspirin group (0.3 vs 0.8%, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regressions revealed that patients given aspirin thromboprophylaxis had significantly lower odds of PJI (odds ratios (OR)=0.51, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.89, p=0.019) compared to non-aspirin patients. CONCLUSIONS:The use of aspirin thromboprophylaxis following primary TKA is independently associated with a lower rate of early PJIs. Arthroplasty surgeons should consider aspirin as the gold standard thromboprophylaxis in all patients in which it is deemed medically appropriate and should carefully weigh the morbidity of PJI in patients when non-aspirin thromboprophylaxis is considered.
Impact of time to revision total knee arthroplasty on outcomes following aseptic failure
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Prior studies have demonstrated an association between time to revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) and indication; however, the impact of early versus late revision on post-operative outcomes has not been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective, observational study examined patients who underwent unilateral, aseptic rTKA at an academic orthopedic hospital between 6/2011 and 4/2020 with > 1-year of follow-up. Patients were early revisions if they were revised within 2 years of primary TKA (pTKA) or late revisions if revised after greater than 2 years. Patient demographics, surgical factors, and post-operative outcomes were compared. RESULTS:470 rTKA were included (199 early, 271 late). Early rTKA patients were younger by 2.5 years (p = 0.002). The predominant indications for early rTKA were instability (28.6%) and arthrofibrosis/stiffness (26.6%), and the predominant indications for late rTKA were aseptic loosening (45.8%) and instability (26.2%; p < 0.001). Late rTKA had longer operative times (119.20 ± 51.94 vs. 103.93 ± 44.66 min; p < 0.001). There were no differences in rTKA type, disposition, hospital length of stay, all-cause 90-day emergency department visits and readmissions, reoperations, and number of re-revisions. CONCLUSIONS:Aseptic rTKA performed before 2 years had different indications but demonstrated similar outcomes to those performed later. Early revisions had shorter surgical times, which could be attributed to differences in rTKA indication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, retrospective observational analysis.
Does antibiotic bone cement reduce infection rates in primary total knee arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacts the patient, surgeon, and healthcare system significantly. Surgeons routinely use antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) in attempts to mitigate infection; however, little evidence supports the efficacy of ALBC in reducing infection rates compared to non-antibiotic-loaded bone cement (non-ALBC) in primary TKA. Our study compares infection rates of patients undergoing TKA with ALBC to those with non-ALBC to assess its efficacy in primary TKA. METHODS:A retrospective review of all primary, elective, cemented TKA patients over the age of 18 between 2011 and 2020 was conducted at an orthopedic specialty hospital. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on cement type: ALBC (loaded with gentamicin or tobramycin) or non-ALBC. Baseline characteristics and infection rates determined by MSIS criteria were collected. Multilinear and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to limit significant differences in demographics. Independent samples t test and chi-squared test were used to compare means and proportions, respectively, between the two cohorts. RESULTS:) and Charlson Comorbidity Index values (4.51 ± 2.15 vs. 4.04 ± 1.92) were more likely to receive ALBC. The infection rate in the non-ALBC was 0.8% (63/7,980), while the rate in the ALBC was 0.5% (7/1,386). After adjusting for confounders, the difference in rates was not significant between the two groups (OR [95% CI]: 1.53 [0.69-3.38], p = 0.298). Furthermore, a sub-analysis comparing the infection rates within various demographic categories also showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Compared to non-ALBC, the overall infection rate in primary TKA was slightly lower when using ALBC; however, the difference was not statistically significant. When stratifying by comorbidity, use of ALBC still showed no statistical significance in reducing the risk of periprosthetic joint infection. Therefore, the advantage of antibiotics in bone cement to prevent infection in primary TKA is not yet elucidated. Further prospective, multicenter studies regarding the clinical benefits of antibiotic use in bone cement for primary TKA are warranted.
Total hip arthroplasty for hip fractures in patients older than 80 years of age: a retrospective matched cohort study
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Increasing age and hip fractures are considered risk factors for post-operative complications in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Consequently, older adults undergoing THA due to hip fracture may have different outcomes and require additional healthcare resources than younger patients. This study aimed to identify the influence of age on discharge disposition and 90-day outcomes of THA performed for hip fractures in patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰80Â years to those agedâ€‰<â€‰80. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective review of 344 patients who underwent primary THA for hip fracture from 2011 to 2021 was conducted. Patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰80Â years old were propensity-matched to a control groupâ€‰<â€‰80Â years old. Patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and 90-day post-operative outcomes were collected and assessed using Chi-square and independent sample t tests. RESULTS:A total of 110 patients remained for matched comparison after propensity matching, and the average age in the younger cohort (YC, nâ€‰=â€‰55) was 67.69â€‰Â±â€‰10.48, while the average age in the older cohort (OC, nâ€‰=â€‰55) was 85.12â€‰Â±â€‰4.77 (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.001). Discharge disposition differed between the cohorts (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005), with the YC being more likely to be discharged home (52.7% vs. 27.3%) or to an acute rehabilitation center (23.6% vs. 16.4%) and less likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility (21.8% vs. 54.5%). 90-day revision (3.6% vs. 1.8%; pâ€‰=â€‰0.558), 90-day readmission (10.9% vs. 14.5%; pâ€‰=â€‰0.567), 90-day complications (pâ€‰=â€‰0.626), and 90-day mortality rates (1.8% vs 1.8%; pâ€‰=â€‰1.000) did not differ significantly between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While older patients were more likely to require a higher level of post-hospital care, outcomes and perioperative complication rates were not significantly different compared to a younger patient cohort. Payors need to consider patients' age in future payment models, as discharge disposition comprises a large percentage of post-discharge expenses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, Retrospective Cohort Study.