Myocardial Redox Hormesis Protects the Heart of Female Mice in Sepsis
Mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide develop cardiomyopathy in a sex and redox-dependent fashion. Here we extended these studies to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model.We compared male and female FVB mice (wild type, WT) and transgenic littermates overexpressing myocardial catalase (CAT). CLP induced 100% mortality within 4 days, with similar mortality rates in male and female WT and CAT mice. 24Ã¢â‚¬Å h after CLP, isolated (Langendorff) perfused hearts showed depressed contractility in WT male mice, but not in male CAT or female WT and CAT mice. In WT male mice, CLP induced a depression of cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening (ÃŽâ€SS) and calcium transients (ÃŽâ€Cai), and the inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA). These deficits were associated with overexpression of NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX)-1, NOX-2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and were partially prevented in male CAT mice. Female WT mice showed unchanged ÃŽâ€SS, ÃŽâ€Cai, and SERCA function after CLP. At baseline, female WT mice showed partially depressed ÃŽâ€SS, ÃŽâ€Cai, and SERCA function, as compared with male WT mice, which were associated with NOX-1 overexpression and were prevented in CAT female mice.In conclusion, in male WT mice, septic shock induces myocardial NOX-1, NOX-2, and COX-2, and redox-dependent dysregulation of myocardial Ca transporters. Female WT mice are resistant to CLP-induced cardiomyopathy, despite increased NOX-1 and COX-2 expression, suggesting increased antioxidant capacity. Female resistance occurred in association with NOX-1 overexpression and signs of increased oxidative signaling at baseline, indicating the presence of a protective myocardial redox hormesis mechanism.
EARLY BLOCKADE OF PD-L1 INCREASES MORTALITY IN SEPSIS [Meeting Abstract]
Immunoprofiling determines survival and guides therapy in sepsis [Meeting Abstract]
Sepsis: multiple abnormalities, heterogeneous responses, and evolving understanding
Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed.
Bacterial lipoprotein TLR2 agonists broadly modulate endothelial function and coagulation pathways in vitro and in vivo
TLR2 activation induces cellular and organ inflammation and affects lung function. Because deranged endothelial function and coagulation pathways contribute to sepsis-induced organ failure, we studied the effects of bacterial lipoprotein TLR2 agonists, including peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, Pam3Cys, and murein lipoprotein, on endothelial function and coagulation pathways in vitro and in vivo. TLR2 agonist treatment induced diverse human endothelial cells to produce IL-6 and IL-8 and to express E-selectin on their surface, including HUVEC, human lung microvascular endothelial cells, and human coronary artery endothelial cells. Treatment of HUVEC with TLR2 agonists caused increased monolayer permeability and had multiple coagulation effects, including increased production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor, as well as decreased production of tissue plasminogen activator and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. TLR2 agonist treatment also increased HUVEC expression of TLR2 itself. Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein induced IL-6 production by endothelial cells from wild-type mice but not from TLR2 knockout mice, indicating TLR2 specificity. Mice were challenged with TLR2 agonists, and lungs and plasmas were assessed for markers of leukocyte trafficking and coagulopathy. Wild-type mice, but not TLR2 mice, that were challenged i.v. with TLR2 agonists had increased lung levels of myeloperoxidase and mRNAs for E-selectin, P-selectin, and MCP-1, and they had increased plasma PAI-1 and E-selectin levels. Intratracheally administered TLR2 agonist caused increased lung fibrin levels. These studies show that TLR2 activation by bacterial lipoproteins broadly affects endothelial function and coagulation pathways, suggesting that TLR2 activation contributes in multiple ways to endothelial activation, coagulopathy, and vascular leakage in sepsis.
The pathogenesis of sepsis
Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that represents a patient's response to a severe infection and has a very high mortality rate. Normal immune and physiologic responses eradicate pathogens, and the pathophysiology of sepsis is due to the inappropriate regulation of these normal reactions. In an ideal scenario, the first pathogen contact with the inflammatory system should eliminate the microbe and quickly return the host to homeostasis. The septic response may accelerate due to continued activation of neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. Upregulation of lymphocyte costimulatory molecules and rapid lymphocyte apoptosis, delayed apoptosis of neutrophils, and enhanced necrosis of cells/tissues also contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The coagulation system is closely tied to the inflammatory response, with cross talk between the two systems driving the dysregulated response. Biomarkers may be used to help diagnose patients with sepsis, and they may also help to identify patients who would benefit from immunomodulatory therapies.
Resilience to bacterial infection: difference between species could be due to proteins in serum
Vertebrates vary in resistance and resilience to infectious diseases, and the mechanisms that regulate the trade-off between these often opposing protective processes are not well understood. Variability in the sensitivity of species to the induction of damaging inflammation in response to equivalent pathogen loads (resilience) complicates the use of animal models that reflect human disease. We found that induction of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli in vitro is regulated by proteins in the sera of species in inverse proportion to their in vivo resilience to lethal doses of bacterial lipopolysaccharide over a range of 10,000-fold. This finding suggests that proteins in serum rather than intrinsic cellular differences may play a role in regulating variations in resilience to microbe-associated molecular patterns between species. The involvement of circulating proteins as key molecules raises hope that the process might be manipulated to create better animal models and potentially new drug targets.
MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways in synergy, priming, and tolerance between TLR agonists
TLRs sense components of microorganisms and are critical host mediators of inflammation during infection. Different TLR agonists can profoundly alter inflammatory effects of one another, and studies suggest that the sequence of exposure to TLR agonists may importantly impact on responses during infection. We tested the hypothesis that synergy, priming, and tolerance between TLR agonists follow a pattern that can be predicted based on differential engagement of the MyD88-dependent (D) and the MyD88-independent (I) intracellular signaling pathways. Inflammatory effects of combinations of D and I pathway agonists were quantified in vivo and in vitro. Experiments used several D-specific agonists, an I-specific agonist (poly(I:C)), and LPS, which acts through both the D and I pathways. D-specific agonists included: peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, Pam3Cys, flagellin, and CpG DNA, which act through TLR2 (peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and Pam3Cys), TLR5, and TLR9, respectively. D and I agonists were markedly synergistic in inducing cytokine production in vivo in mice. All of the D-specific agonists were synergistic with poly(I:C) in vitro in inducing TNF and IL-6 production by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Pretreatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with poly(I:C) led to a primed response to subsequent D-specific agonists and vice versa, as indicated by increased cytokine production, and increased NF-kappaB translocation. Pretreatment with a D-specific agonist augmented LPS-induced IFN-beta production. All D-specific agonists induced tolerance to one another. Thus, under the conditions studied here, simultaneous and sequential activation of both the D and I pathways causes synergy and priming, respectively, and tolerance is induced by agonists that act through the same pathway.
Passive immunization to outer membrane proteins MLP and PAL does not protect mice from sepsis
Multiple older studies report that immunoglobulin directed to rough mutant bacteria, such as E. coli J5, provides broad protection against challenge with heterologous strains of Gram-negative bacteria. This protection was initially believed to occur through binding of immunoglobulin to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in attempting to develop clinically-effective anti-LPS monoclonal antibodies without success, and no study has shown that IgG from this antiserum binds LPS. Identification of the protective mechanism would facilitate development of broadly protective human monoclonal antibodies for treating sepsis. IgG from this antiserum binds 2 bacterial outer membrane proteins: murein lipoprotein (MLP) and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL). Both of these outer membrane proteins are highly conserved, have lipid domains that are anchored in the bacterial membrane, are shed from bacteria in blebs together with LPS, and activate cells through Toll-like receptor 2. Our goal in the current work was to determine if passive immunization directed to MLP and PAL protects mice from Gram-negative sepsis. Neither monoclonal nor polyclonal IgG directed to MLP or PAL conferred survival protection in 3 different models of sepsis: cecal ligation and puncture, an infected burn model, and an infected fibrin clot model mimicking peritonitis. Our results are not supportive of the hypothesis that either anti-MLP or anti-PAL IgG are the protective antibodies in the previously described anti-rough mutant bacterial antisera. These studies suggest that a different mechanism of protection is involved.