Myomectomy scar pregnancy - A serious, but scarcely reported entity: Literature review and an instructive case
Objectives: Uterine myomas are a frequent finding in reproductive age women with an estimated incidence 12-25%. 1. Treatment of uterine myomas to facilitate good pregnancy rates and outcome, such as hysteroscopic, laparoscopic, abdominal resection uterine artery embolization among others were evaluated in terms of pregnancy outcome. While the literature is replete of the pregnancy complication of uterine rupture after myomectomies, 2-4 there are very few publications evaluate a relatively rare pregnancy complication associated with placental implantation within the uterine cavity at the site of the previous myomectomy, namely the myomectomy scar pregnancy (MSP). Despite their relative rarity, this type of pathologically adherent placenta rightfully belongs to the well-known entity of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS). Case presentation: We present a complicated case of MSP and review the available literature to raise attention to its clinical appearance, its prenatal diagnosis so appropriate intrapartum management can be planned.
Conclusion(s): Despite the rarity of MSP, continuous attention should be given at every single routinely scheduled or indication driven obstetrical US scan following myomectomies to evaluate the placental site implantation regardless of the route and technique of their initial surgical procedure.
Amniotic Band Syndrome, Perinatal Hospice, and Palliative Care versus Active Management
Introduction. Amniotic band syndrome and sequence are a relatively rare condition in which congenital anomalies occur as a result of the adherence and entrapment of fetal parts with coarse fibrous bands of the amniotic membrane. A large percentage of reported cases have an atypical gestational history. The frequency of this obstetric complication is not affected by fetal gender, genetic abnormality, or prenatal infection. Case. A 21-year-old, G1P0 female parturient at 18 weeks and 5 days with a single intrauterine gestation during a routine ultrasound evaluation was noted to have amniotic band sequence. The pregnancy was subsequently complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes with oligohydramnios, resulting in a surviving neonate scheduled for rehabilitative treatment. Conclusion. Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly resulting in multiple disfiguring and disabling manifestations. Several theories are proposed with most involving early rupture of the amnion and entanglement of fetal parts by amniotic bands. This syndrome can be manifested by development of multiple malformations, with the majority of the defects being limb abnormalities of a disorganized nature, as in the case we present. In the absence of a clear etiology of consequential congenital abnormalities, obstetric management guidelines should use shared decision models to focus on the quality of life for the offspring.
Postoperative outcomes among patients undergoing thoracostomy tube placement at time of diaphragm peritonectomy or resection during primary cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer
OBJECTIVE: Primary cytoreductive surgery in patients with stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer frequently includes diaphragm peritonectomy or resection, which can lead to symptomatic pleural effusions when the resection specimen is >/= 10 cm. Our objective was to evaluate whether the placement of an intraoperative thoracostomy tube decreased the incidence of symptomatic pleural effusions in these cases. METHODS: We identified 156 patients who underwent primary debulking surgery involving diaphragm peritonectomy or resection for stage III-IV ovarian cancer from 1/01-12/09. Using standard statistical tests, the incidence of symptomatic pleural effusions and other variables were compared between patients who did and did not have intraoperative chest tubes placed. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had a resected diaphragm specimen >/= 10 cm in largest dimension; 28 (57%) did not undergo chest tube placement (NCT group) while 21 (43%) did (CT group). Mediastinal lymph node dissection (0% vs 19%, P = 0.028) and liver resections (11% vs 38%, P = 0.037) were higher in the CT group. Postoperatively, 57% of the NCT group developed a moderate or large pleural effusion compared to 19% of the CT group (P = 0.007). Thirteen patients (46%) in the NCT group developed respiratory symptoms requiring either placement of a postoperative chest tube or thoracentesis compared to 3 patients (14%) in the CT group (P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm peritonectomy or resection can often lead to moderate or large pleural effusions that may become symptomatic. In these patients, intraoperative chest tube placement may be considered to decrease the incidence of symptomatic effusions and the need for postoperative chest tube placement or thoracentesis.