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Barriers to Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youth in the Emergency Department

Seag, Dana E M; Cervantes, Paige E; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth; Knapp, Katrina; Tay, Ee Tein; Wiener, Ethan; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
OBJECTIVE:Given the increasing rates of youth suicide, it is important to understand the barriers to suicide screening in emergency departments. This review describes the current literature, identifies gaps in existing research, and suggests recommendations for future research. METHODS:A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Web of Science was conducted. Data extraction included study/sample characteristics and barrier information categorized based on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment model. RESULTS:All studies focused on inner context barriers of implementation and usually examined individuals' attitudes toward screening. No study looked at administrative, policy, or financing issues. CONCLUSIONS:The lack of prospective, systematic studies on barriers and the focus on individual adopter attitudes reveal a significant gap in understanding the challenges to implementation of universal youth suicide risk screening in emergency departments.
PMID: 35100791
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 5153392

Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youths in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review

Cervantes, Paige E; Seag, Dana E M; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth; Knapp, Katrina; Tay, Ee Tein; Wiener, Ethan; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:To address escalating youth suicide rates, universal suicide risk screening has been recommended in pediatric care settings. The emergency department (ED) is a particularly important setting for screening. However, EDs often fail to identify and treat mental health symptoms among youths, and data on implementation of suicide risk screening in EDs are limited. A systematic review was conducted to describe the current literature on universal suicide risk screening in EDs, identify important gaps in available studies, and develop recommendations for strategies to improve youth screening efforts. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was conducted. Studies focused on universal suicide risk screening of youths served in U.S. EDs that presented screening results were coded, analyzed, and evaluated for reporting quality. Eleven studies were included. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:All screening efforts occurred in teaching or children's hospitals, and research staff administered suicide screens in eight studies. Thus scant information was available on universal screening in pediatric community ED settings. Large variation was noted across studies in participation rates (17%-86%) and in positive screen rates (4.1%-50.8%), although positive screen rates were influenced by type of presenting concern (psychiatric versus nonpsychiatric). Only three studies concurrently examined barriers to screening, providing little direction for effective implementation. STROBE guidelines were used to rate reporting quality, which ranged from 51.9% to 87.1%, with three studies having ratings over 80%. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Research is needed to better inform practice guidelines and clinical pathways and to establish sustainable screening programs for youths presenting for care in EDs.
PMID: 34106741
ISSN: 1557-9700
CID: 4899972

Examination of the 2018-2019 New York City measles outbreak within the NYU langone health system [Meeting Abstract]

Ross, J; Di, Miceli E; Wu, T; Wiener, E
Background and Objectives: The 2018-2019 measles outbreak saw 1123 cases in the United States, the most since measles was declared eradicated in 2000, with 654 of those cases identified in New York City. Because measles is extremely contagious, it can lead to dangerous complications in immunodeficient populations. As a result, it is important to determine which presenting factors are high risk in order to isolate these patients early, and prevent further exposure Methods: This study examines factors including demographics, signs and symptoms, vital signs, and labs in 112 patients who were tested for measles throughout the NYU Langone Health system. Primary outcomes included positive measles diagnosis by either confirmatory test, while secondary outcomes included admission to hospital or ICU. Chart review data was collected in REDCap. All statistical analysis was done in SPSS Statistics. Independent predictors were measured through a binary logistic regression model Results: Throughout the study time period, 112 patients were tested for measles. Three of these patients were excluded due to a lack of confirmatory test results. In the 84 pediatric patients, either not being immunized to measles or having a fever at the time of presentation were independent predictors of having measles in those who were tested (p<0.05). Of the 31 pediatric patients who had confirmed measles, the presence of conjunctivitis or tachypnea were independent predictors of being admitted to the hospital from the emergency department (p<0.05). Additionally, it was found that physicians ordered only one of two available confirmatory tests for measles detection in 37 patients. There were 11 instances of patients testing positive for one test and negative for the other, leaving the possibility that measles could have been missed in some patients who only received one of these diagnostic studies
Conclusion(s): In pediatric patients, vaccination status and the presence of fever can be used to indicate if a patient is at risk for measles, while the presence of conjunctivitis or tachypnea suggests that the patient may require hospitalization. Additionally, both confirmatory tests should be run in order to prevent underdiagnoses. These findings have the potential to change hospital protocols for suspected measles patients to better detect and isolate potentially infectious emergency department patients
ISSN: 1553-2712
CID: 4547912

Implementation of Febrile Infant Management Guidelines Reduces Hospitalization

Foster, Lauren Z; Beiner, Joshua; Duh-Leong, Carol; Mascho, Kira; Giordani, Victoria; Rinke, Michael L; Trasande, Leonardo; Wiener, Ethan; Rosenberg, Rebecca E
The clinical management of well-appearing febrile infants 7-60 days of age remains variable due in part to multiple criteria differentiating the risk of a serious bacterial infection. The purpose of this quality improvement study was to standardize risk stratification in the emergency department and length of stay in the inpatient unit by implementing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline (CPG).
PMID: 32190797
ISSN: 2472-0054
CID: 4352872

Diagnosis and emergent management of anaphylaxis in children

Wiener, Ethan S; Bajaj, Lalit
Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are serious, potentially life-threatening reactions with well-described clinical manifestations. Although the pathophysiology of these reactions varies with the offending agent and route of exposure, the treatment remains the same. Attention to airway, breathing, and circulation and the prompt administration of epinephrine remain the mainstays of therapy. Once an at-risk individual is identified, the proper instruction on the avoidance of the offending agent, the use of the EpiPen, and referral to a specialist in the treatment of allergic reactions may be instrumental in the future health and safety of that patient
PMID: 16124341
ISSN: 0065-3101
CID: 59551

Guidelines for developing admission and discharge policies for the pediatric intensive care unit

Jaimovich, DG; Hauser, GGJ; Witte, MK; Wong, J; Rice, TB; Kronick, J; Outwater, KM; White, SL; Rosenthal, C; LeBard, SB; DeNicola, LK; Yeh, TS; Ackerman, AD; Amer, HN; Moss, M; Notterman, DA; Storgion, SA; Schaeffer, HA; Hardy, DR; Jewett, PH; Neff, JM; Snitzer, JA; Packard, JM; Steinhart, CM; Wiener, E; Perkins, MT; Rosenblatt, E; Ostric, EJ; Wilson, JM; Striker, T; Outwater, KM; Soc Crit Care Med Conjuction
These guidelines were developed to provide a reference for preparing policies on admission and discharge for pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), They represent a consensus opinion of physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals, By using this document as a framework for developing multidisciplinary admission and discharge policies, utilization of pediatric intensive care units can be optimized and patients can receive the level of care appropriate for their condition.
ISSN: 0090-3493
CID: 2727432

The revised CDC guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals: Implications for pediatrics

Halsey, NA; Abramson, JS; Chesney, PJ; Fisher, MC; Gerber, MA; Gromisch, DS; Kohl, S; Marcy, SM; Murray, DL; Overturf, GD; Whitley, RJ; Yogev, R; Peter, G; Donowitz, LG; Breiman, R; Hardegree, MC; Jacobs, RF; MacDonald, NE; Orenstein, WA; Rabinovich, NR; Schwartz, B; Shira, JE; Diamond, J; O'Connor, ME; Packard, JM; Reynolds, M; Schaeffer, HA; Steinhart, CM; English, CS; Perkins, MT; Maruca, R; Wilson, JM; Wiener, E; VanOstenberg, PR; Striker, T; Raphaely, RC
The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Center for Infectious Diseases have issued new isolation guidelines that replace earlier recommendations. Modifications of these guidelines for the care of hospitalized infants and children should be considered specifically as they relate to glove use for routine diaper changing, private room isolation, and common use areas such as playrooms and schoolrooms. These new guidelines replace those provided in the 1994 Red Book and have been incorporated into the 1997 Red Book
ISSN: 0031-4005
CID: 737532

Hernia survey of the Section on Surgery of the American Academy of Pediatrics

Wiener, E S; Touloukian, R J; Rodgers, B M; Grosfeld, J L; Smith, E I; Ziegler, M M; Coran, A G
The members of the Section on Surgery of the American Academy of Pediatrics were surveyed to determine the practice of North American pediatric surgeons in infants with inguinal hernia (IH). Case-scenario multiple-choice-design questionnaires regarding hernias and hydroceles were sent to all members of the Surgical Section, and responses were received from 292 (50%). In healthy full-term infant boys with asymptomatic reducible IH, 82% of responders perform repair electively, no matter what the age or weight. In full-term girls with a reducible ovary, 59% perform surgery at the next available time; if the ovary is nonreducible but asymptomatic, 44% operate emergently or urgently and 42% at the next elective slot. In former preemies, the pattern of repair is as follows. (1) For those recently discharged after 2 months in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with reducible IH, 65% perform the repair when convenient. (2) A general anesthetic is used in 70%; 15% use spinal anesthesia, and 11% use caudal block with sedation. (3) If the repair is done in the hospital outpatient (same-day) unit, 36% wait until 50 weeks postconception (PC) and 33% wait until 60 weeks PC. (4) if the baby's weight is at least 1,000 g. 71% perform the repair before discharge. The pain control choice after childhood IH repair is Tylenol for 30%, local infiltration biquivacaine for 30%, caudal block for 22%, regional block for 11%, and Tylenol/codeine combined for 7%. In 6-week-old full-term infants with communicating hydroceles without definite 'hernia,' two thirds treat as an IH with elective repair as soon as possible. With respect to contralateral exploration in infants with unilateral IH, 65% perform it in males if they are < or = 2 years of age and 84% use it in females of up to 4 years of age. This approach is not influenced by presenting side, presence of hydrocele, or history of prematurity. Laparoscopic evaluation of the contralateral IH is performed by only 6% of responders, 40% of whom use the open ipsilateral sac for laparoscope introduction
PMID: 8863257
ISSN: 0022-3468
CID: 111114

Minimally invasive surgery in children with cancer

Holcomb, G W 3rd; Tomita, S S; Haase, G M; Dillon, P W; Newman, K D; Applebaum, H; Wiener, E S
BACKGROUND. The safety and efficacy of minimally invasive oncologic procedures in children have not been well defined and only limited anecdotal experience has been published. METHODS. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing either a laparoscopic or thoracoscopic procedure at Childrens Cancer Group institutions between December 1, 1991, and October 1, 1993, was performed. RESULTS. Eighty-five children underwent 88 minimally invasive surgical procedures as part of the evaluation or treatment for cancer at 15 participating centers. In 25 patients, laparoscopy was performed and 60 patients underwent 63 thoracoscopic operations. Tissue biopsies were taken in 67 cases and diagnostic material was obtained in 99% of the biopsies. Seven complications occurred, all within the thoracoscopic group. These included conversion of six operations to an open procedure. One patient developed atelectasis postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS. In pediatric patients with suspected cancer, laparoscopy was highly accurate with minimal morbidity; thoracoscopy was nearly as efficient with slightly higher morbidity. Both modalities are useful for assessment of resectability, for staging purposes, and for evaluation of recurrent or metastatic disease
PMID: 8630863
ISSN: 0008-543x
CID: 103250

Human CD8+ T lymphocyte clones specific for T cell receptor V beta families expressed on autologous CD4+ T cells

Ware, R; Jiang, H; Braunstein, N; Kent, J; Wiener, E; Pernis, B; Chess, L
CD8+ T cells control immune responses, and recent studies suggest that this regulation is, in part, specifically directed towards TCR structures expressed by CD4+ cells. To develop a system to study the role of the TCR in regulatory interactions, we isolated clones of CD4+ cells expressing identified TCR V beta chains. These CD4+ clones were used to stimulate and expand autologous CD8+ cells, which kill the inducing CD4+ clone as well as independently isolated autologous CD4+ clones sharing the same TCR V beta as the inducing cell but not CD4+ T cells expressing different V beta TCRs. This V beta-specific cytotoxicity is dependent on the state of activation of the target cells and is not inhibited by an anti-class I monoclonal antibody, W6/32. We envision that V beta-specific CD8+ T cells of this type may regulate immune responses by direct interaction with antigen-activated CD4+ cells.
PMID: 7895174
ISSN: 1074-7613
CID: 177539