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Central Retinal Artery Visualization with Cone-Beam CT Angiography

Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Shepherd, Timothy M; Nossek, Erez; Yaghi, Shadi; Gold, Doria M; Ishida, Koto; Rucker, Janet C; Belinsky, Irina; Kim, Eleanore; Grory, Brian Mac; Mir, Osman; Hagiwara, Mari; Agarwal, Shashank; Young, Matthew G; Galetta, Steven L; Nelson, Peter Kim
Background There are multiple tools available to visualize the retinal and choroidal vasculature of the posterior globe. However, there are currently no reliable in vivo imaging techniques that can visualize the entire retrobulbar course of the retinal and ciliary vessels. Purpose To identify and characterize the central retinal artery (CRA) using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images obtained as part of diagnostic cerebral angiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, patients with catheter DSA performed between October 2019 and October 2020 were included if CBCT angiography included the orbit in the field of view. The CBCT angiography data sets were postprocessed with a small field-of-view volume centered in the posterior globe to a maximum resolution of 0.2 mm. The following were evaluated: CRA origin, CRA course, CRA point of penetration into the optic nerve sheath, bifurcation of the CRA at the papilla, visualization of anatomic variants, and visualization of the central retinal vein. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Twenty-one patients with 24 visualized orbits were included in the analysis (mean age, 55 years ± 15; 14 women). Indications for angiography were as follows: diagnostic angiography (n = 8), aneurysm treatment (n = 6), or other (n = 7). The CRA was identified in all orbits; the origin, course, point of penetration of the CRA into the optic nerve sheath, and termination in the papilla were visualized in all orbits. The average length of the intraneural segment was 10.6 mm (range, 7-18 mm). The central retinal vein was identified in six of 24 orbits. Conclusion Cone-beam CT, performed during diagnostic angiography, consistently demonstrated the in vivo central retinal artery, demonstrating excellent potential for multiple diagnostic and therapeutic applications. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
PMID: 34783593
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5049072

Correction to: Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas

Wright, Kyla; Lee, Matthew; Escobar, Natalie; Pacione, Donato; Young, Matthew; Fatterpekar, Girish; Agrawal, Nidhi
PMID: 34097197
ISSN: 1559-0100
CID: 4906032

Correction: Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas

Wright, Kyla; Lee, Matthew; Escobar, Natalie; Pacione, Donato; Young, Matthew; Fatterpekar, Girish; Agrawal, Nidhi
PMID: 34227041
ISSN: 1559-0100
CID: 5025042

Case 299

Radmanesh, Alireza; Young, Matthew G
History A 32-year-old woman presented to an ophthalmologist for bilateral blurry vision. She underwent MRI of the brain and orbits, which showed a focal abnormality within the pituitary gland. The patient was referred to an endocrinologist for further evaluation. Review of systems and physical examination by the endocrinologist revealed no symptoms or signs of endocrine dysfunction. Anterior pituitary hormone levels, including growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, were normal. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the sella and pituitary gland (Figs 1-3) and subsequent CT of the anterior skull base (Figs 4, 5) were performed.
PMID: 34694934
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5042242

Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas

Wright, Kyla; Lee, Matthew; Escobar, Natalie; Pacione, Donato; Young, Matthew; Fatterpekar, Girish; Agrawal, Nidhi
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Both prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas (NFAs) can present with hyperprolactinemia. Distinguishing them is critical because prolactinomas are effectively managed with dopamine agonists, whereas compressive NFAs are treated surgically. Current guidelines rely only on serum prolactin (PRL) levels, which are neither sensitive nor specific enough. Recent studies suggest that accounting for tumor volume may improve diagnosis. The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic utility of PRL, tumor volume, and imaging features in differentiating prolactinoma and NFA. METHODS:Adult patients with pathologically confirmed prolactinoma (n = 21) or NFA with hyperprolactinemia (n = 58) between 2013 and 2020 were retrospectively identified. Diagnostic performance of clinical and imaging variables was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic curves to calculate area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS:with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82.76%. Binary logistic regression found that PRL was a significant positive predictor of prolactinoma diagnosis, whereas tumor volume, presence of CSI not previously defined, and T2 hyperintensity were significant negative predictors. The regression model had an AUC of 0.9915 (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Consideration of tumor volume improves differentiation between prolactinomas and NFAs, which in turn leads to effective management.
PMID: 33966173
ISSN: 1559-0100
CID: 4878192

"The Pituitary within GRASP" - Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Dynamic MRI Technique and Applications to the Pituitary Gland

Lee, Matthew D; Young, Matthew G; Fatterpekar, Girish M
MRI is the preferred radiologic modality for evaluating the pituitary gland. An important component of pituitary MRI examinations is dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Compared to conventional dynamic techniques, golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) imaging offers multiple advantages, including the ability to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. In this narrative review, we discuss dynamic imaging of the pituitary gland, the technical fundamentals of GRASP, and applications of GRASP to the pituitary gland.
PMID: 34147165
ISSN: 1558-5034
CID: 4924692

Medical Student Engagement and Educational Value of a Remote Clinical Radiology Learning Environment: Creation of Virtual Read-Out Sessions in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Alpert, Jeffrey B; Young, Matthew G; Lala, Shailee V; McGuinness, Georgeann
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The need for social distancing has resulted in rapid restructuring of medical student education in radiology. While students traditionally spend time learning in the reading room, remote clinical learning requires material shared without direct teaching at the radiology workstation. Can remote clinical learning meet or exceed the educational value of the traditional in-person learning experience? Can student engagement be matched or exceeded in a remote learning environment? MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:To replace the in-person reading room experience, a small-group learning session for medical students named Virtual Read-Out (VRO) was developed using teleconferencing software. After Institutional Review Board approval, two student groups were anonymously surveyed to assess differences in student engagement and perceived value between learning environments: "Conventional" students participating in the reading room (before the pandemic) and "Remote" students participating in VRO sessions. Students reported perceived frequency of a series of five-point Likert statements. Based on number of respondents, an independent t-test was performed to determine the significance of results between two groups. RESULTS:Twenty-seven conventional and 41 remote students responded. Remote students reported modest but significantly higher frequency of active participation in reviewing radiology exams (p < 0.05). There was significantly lower frequency of reported boredom among Remote students (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in perceived educational value between the two groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Students report a high degree of teaching quality, clinical relevance, and educational value regardless of remote or in-person learning format. Remote clinical radiology education can be achieved with equal or greater student interaction and perceived value in fewer contact hours than conventional learning in the reading room.
PMID: 33268209
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 4694252

Awake Laser Ablation for Patients With Tumors in Eloquent Brain Areas: Operative Technique and Case Series

Hajtovic, Sabastian; Mogilner, Alon; Ard, John; Gautreaux, Jose E; Britton, Hannah; Fatterpekar, Girish; Young, Matthew G; Placantonakis, Dimitris G
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive treatment modality that has been gaining traction in neuro-oncology. Laser ablation is a particularly appealing treatment option when eloquent neurologic function at the tumor location precludes conventional surgical excision. Although typically performed under general anesthesia, LITT in awake patients may help monitor and preserve critical neurologic functions. Objective To describe intraoperative workflow and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing awake laser ablation of brain tumors. Methods We present a cohort of six patients with tumors located in eloquent brain areas that were treated with awake LITT and report three different workflow paradigms involving diagnostic or intraoperative MRI. In all cases, we used NeuroBlate® (Monteris Medical, Plymouth, MN) fiberoptic laser probes for stereotactic laser ablation of tumors. The neurologic status of patients was intermittently assessed every few minutes during the ablation. Results The mean preoperative tumor volume that was targeted was 12.09 ± 3.20 cm3, and the estimated ablation volume was 12.06 ± 2.75 cm3. Performing the procedure in awake patients allowed us close monitoring of neurologic function intraoperatively. There were no surgical complications. The length of stay was one day for all patients except one. Three patients experienced acute or delayed worsening of pre-existing neurologic deficits that responded to corticosteroids. Conclusion We propose that awake LITT is a safe approach when tumors in eloquent brain areas are considered for laser ablation.
PMID: 33489596
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 5018232

Surprise Diagnosis of COVID-19 following Neuroimaging Evaluation for Unrelated Reasons during the Pandemic in Hot Spots

Jain, R; Young, M; Dogra, S; Kennedy, H; Nguyen, V; Raz, E
During the height of the recent outbreak of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) in New York City, almost all the hospital emergency departments were inundated with patients with COVID-19, who presented with typical fever, cough, and dyspnea. A small number of patients also presented with either unrelated conditions (such as trauma) or other emergencies, and some of which are now known to be associated with COVID-19 (such as stroke). We report such a scenario in 17 patients who were admitted and investigated with CT spine imaging and CT angiography for nonpulmonary reasons (trauma = 13, stroke = 4). Their initial work-up did not suggest COVID-19 as a diagnosis but showed unsuspected/incidental lung findings, which led to further investigations and a diagnosis of COVID-19.
PMID: 32467189
ISSN: 1936-959x
CID: 4473482

Spontaneous, Intrasphenoidal Rupture of Ecchordosis Physaliphora with Pneumocephalus Captured During Serial Imaging and Clinical Follow-up: Pathoanatomic Features and Management [Case Report]

Derakhshani, Ahrya; Livingston, Stephanie; William, Christopher; Lieberman, Seth; Young, Matthew; Pacione, Donato; Dehkharghani, Seena
BACKGROUND:Ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) is a congenital, uniformly asymptomatic, hamartomatous lesion of the primitive notochord. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first credible case report of unprovoked intra-sphenoidal rupture resulting in recurrent pneumocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, definitively captured over serial imaging during clinical and radiologic surveillance. CASE DESCRIPTION/METHODS:A 68-year old woman with Marfan syndrome presented to the Emergency Department with the worst headache of life. Imaging demonstrated extensive pneumocephalus and revealed a small, dorsal midline clival lesion consistent with EP and a trans-sphenoidal defect. Remote imaging encounters confirmed typical EP without pneumocephalus or cortical defect, and an uneventful clinical course years preceding presentation. Over the ensuing months during neurosurgical follow-up, the patient reported recurrent headaches, imbalance, and unprovoked clear rhinorrhea. Further imaging demonstrates an apparently enlarging trans-sphenoidal defect which was managed by endoscopic trans-nasal resection and nasoseptal flap. Pathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EP and chronic dural defect. CONCLUSIONS:This represents, to our knowledge, the first unambiguous example of spontaneous EP rupture and recurrent pneumocephalus captured over serial imaging. The case further underscores rare, but potentially significant complications of EP and highlights management options. BACKGROUND:. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first documented spontaneous rupture of EP resulting in recurrent pneumocephalus, credibly captured over serial radiologic surveillance. CLINICAL PRESENTATION/METHODS:A 68 year-old woman with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Marfan syndrome presented to the Emergency Department reporting the "worst headache of her life" after engaging in an interpersonal dispute the evening preceding presentation.
PMID: 32492548
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 4469112