Development of a revolutionary implant surface : from benchtop to clinical use
Implants With and Without Laser-Microtextured Collar: A 10-Year Clinical and Radiographic Comparative Evaluation
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:This article reports, after at least 10 years of follow-up, the comparative data of marginal bone loss (MBL) and periimplant soft tissue parameters, around implant with and without laser-microtextured (L) collar surface, previously reported at 3 years of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Twenty implants with L collar surface (test) were placed adjacent to 20 control implants with machined (M) collar surface in 15 partially edentulous patients, who were followed up for at least 10 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. The plaque score, bleeding on probing (BoP) score, and probing depth (PD) were recorded at baseline and at each year follow-up examination. Mucosal recession (MR), and radiographic MBL were assessed at baseline and after at least 10 years. RESULTS:Four patients were lost during follow-up, so the number of implants that have been followed for at least 10 years was 32 (16 tests and 16 controls). At the end of the follow-up period, no significant differences were found between the study groups regarding the presence of plaque and BoP (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference between test and control implant was found for mean PD (2.3 Â± 0.7 mm vs 3.8 Â± 0.8), MBL (1.23 Â± 0.21 mm vs 2.8 Â± 0.9 mm), and mean MR (1.08 Â± 0.4 mm vs 2.46 Â± 0.3 mm). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest that after at least 10 years of function, implants with laser-microtexturing (L) collar surface, compared with implants with machined surface, lead to lower MBL and PD.
Alkaline phosphatase levels of murine pre-osteoblastic cells on anodized and annealed titanium surfaces
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:thin films with photocatalytical activity with previously confirmed antibacterial properties. Materials and methods/UNASSIGNED:thin films fabricated by anodization and annealing of cpTi were used to culture MC3T3-E1 cells to evaluate the initial cellular adhesion morphology and ALP activity in vitro. Results/UNASSIGNED:thin films exhibited similar ALP levels after cell culture day 9. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Anodizing and annealing processes fabricate multifunctional surfaces on cpTi with improved osteogenic properties for implants.
Human Histologic Evidence of Reosseointegration Around an Implant Affected with Peri-implantitis Following Decontamination with Sterile Saline and Antiseptics: A Case History Report
The treatment of peri-implant disease is one of the most controversial topics in implant dentistry. The multifactorial etiology and the myriad proposed techniques for managing the problem make successful decontamination of an implant surface affected by peri-implantitis one of the more unpredictable challenges dental practitioners have to face. This article presents the first known published case report demonstrating human histologic evidence of reosseointegration using a plastic curette for mechanical debridement and dilute sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sterile saline for chemical detoxification. Guided bone regeneration in the infrabony component of the peri-implantitis lesion was accomplished using calcium sulfate and bovine bone as grafting materials and a porcine collagen barrier for connective tissue and epithelial exclusion.
Bone regeneration in critical bone defects using three-dimensionally printed beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite scaffolds is enhanced by coating scaffolds with either dipyridamole or BMP-2
Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing technology we have created custom 3D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (beta-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. Nearly 15% HA:85% beta-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100 degrees C for 4 h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200 ng mL-1 ), dypiridamole 100 microM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3 mm cranial critical bone defects for 2-8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/beta-TCP-dipyridamole and HA/beta-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5 per group; p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/beta-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/beta-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. Coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/beta-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
Design and validation of a dynamic cell-culture system for bone biology research and exogenous tissue-engineering applications
Bone lacunocanalicular fluid flow ensures chemotransportation and provides a mechanical stimulus to cells. Traditional static cell-culture methods are ill-suited to study the intricacies of bone biology because they ignore the three-dimensionality of meaningful cellular networks and the lacunocanalicular system; furthermore, reliance on diffusion alone for nutrient supply and waste product removal effectively limits scaffolds to 2-3 mm thickness. In this project, a flow-perfusion system was custom-designed to overcome these limitations: eight adaptable chambers housed cylindrical cell-seeded scaffolds measuring 12 or 24 mm in diameter and 1-10 mm in thickness. The porous scaffolds were manufactured using a three-dimensional (3D) periodic microprinting process and were composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate with variable thicknesses, strut sizes, pore sizes and structural configurations. A multi-channel peristaltic pump drew medium from parallel reservoirs and perfused it through each scaffold at a programmable rate. Hermetically sealed valves permitted sampling or replacement of medium. A gas-permeable membrane allowed for gas exchange. Tubing was selected to withstand continuous perfusion for > 2 months without leakage. Computational modelling was performed to assess the adequacy of oxygen supply and the range of fluid shear stress in the bioreactor-scaffold system, using 12 x 6 mm scaffolds, and these models suggested scaffold design modifications that improved oxygen delivery while enhancing physiological shear stress. This system may prove useful in studying complex 3D bone biology and in developing strategies for engineering thick 3D bone constructs
Cell Response to Surfaces: A Concise Summary
Surface nano- and microtexturing techniques have been used to enhance osseointegration, but how these surfaces work is not well understood. Using the knowledge gained from the cell and molecular biology fields, tissue engineering studies, and their own work, the authors and other researchers have developed surfaces for in vitro and in vivo control of the function of cells and tissues. In the present article, the authors summarize what they know about the process of cell response to surfaces, and what they have done and can do to develop surfaces that control hard- and soft-tissue formation and integration of implants. This article is intended to add to the clinician's understanding of cell and surface interactions, explain why certain surfaces are currently used, and describe what surfaces clinicians may see in the future.
Mechanical modification of dental implants to control bone retention
Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP) in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI) mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness R a and R z were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2-5 microm) and protruding hills (10-50 microm) on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher R a and R z surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.
The Use of Three-Dimensionally Printed beta-Tricalcium Phosphate/Hydroxyapatite to Further Understand the Regulation of Adenosine Receptors in Osteoclast Formation and Promotion in Bone Regeneration [Meeting Abstract]