person:Alexander Glick (glicka01) or goldg01 or grossr06 or messim01 or Rebecca Rosenberg (rosenr14) or tomops01 or yinh02 or ahf1 or weitzm01
Addressing Health Literacy in Pediatric Practice: A Health Equity Lens
Low health literacy has been linked to worse child health-related knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes across multiple health domains. As low health literacy is highly prevalent and an important mediator of income- and race/ethnicity-associated disparities, provider adoption of health literacy best practices advances health equity. A multidisciplinary effort involving all providers engaged in communication with families should include a universal precautions approach, with clear communication strategies employed with all patients, and advocacy for health system change.
Prenatal oxidative stress and rapid infant weight gain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Infant weight patterns predict subsequent weight outcomes. Rapid infant weight gain, defined as a >0.67 increase in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) between two time points in infancy, increases obesity risk. Higher oxidative stress, an imbalance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species, has been associated with low birthweight and paradoxically also with later obesity. We hypothesized that prenatal oxidative stress may also be associated with rapid infant weight gain, an early weight pattern associated with future obesity. METHODS:Within the NYU Children's Health and Environment Study prospective pregnancy cohort, we analyzed associations between prenatal lipid, protein, and DNA urinary oxidative stress biomarkers and infant weight data. Primary outcome was rapid infant weight gain (>0.67 increase in WAZ) between birth and later infancy at the 8 or 12 month visit. Secondary outcomes included: very rapid weight gain (>1.34 increase in WAZ), low (<2500 g) or high (≥4000 g) birthweight, and low (< -1 WAZ) or high (>1 WAZ) 12 month weight. RESULTS:Pregnant participants consented to the postnatal study (n = 541); 425 participants had weight data both at birth and in later infancy. In an adjusted binary model, prenatal 8-iso-PGF2α, a lipid oxidative stress biomarker, was associated with rapid infant weight gain (aOR 1.44; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.78, p = 0.001). In a multinomial model using ≤0.67 change in WAZ as a reference group, 8-iso-PGF2α was associated with rapid infant weight gain (defined as >0.67 but ≤1.34 WAZ; aOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.05, p = 0.001) and very rapid infant weight gain (defined as >1.34 WAZ; aOR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.72, p < 0.05) Secondary analyses detected associations between 8-iso-PGF2α and low birthweight outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:We found an association between 8-iso-PGF2α, a lipid prenatal oxidative stress biomarker, and rapid infant weight gain, expanding our understanding of the developmental origins of obesity and cardiometabolic disease.
Prenatal Dietary Patterns and Associations With Weight-Related Pregnancy Outcomes in Hispanic Women With Low Incomes
Untargeted Metabolomics to Characterize the Urinary Chemical Landscape of E-Cigarette Users
The health and safety of using e-cigarette products (vaping) have been challenging to assess and further regulate due to their complexity. Inhaled e-cigarette aerosols contain chemicals with under-recognized toxicological profiles, which could influence endogenous processes once inhaled. We urgently need more understanding on the metabolic effects of e-cigarette exposure and how they compare to combustible cigarettes. To date, the metabolic landscape of inhaled e-cigarette aerosols, including chemicals originated from vaping and perturbed endogenous metabolites in vapers, is poorly characterized. To better understand the metabolic landscape and potential health consequences of vaping, we applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based nontargeted metabolomics to analyze compounds in the urine of vapers, cigarette smokers, and nonusers. Urine from vapers (n = 34), smokers (n = 38), and nonusers (n = 45) was collected for verified LC-HRMS nontargeted chemical analysis. The altered features (839, 396, and 426 when compared smoker and control, vaper and control, and smoker and vaper, respectively) among exposure groups were deciphered for their structural identities, chemical similarities, and biochemical relationships. Chemicals originating from e-cigarettes and altered endogenous metabolites were characterized. There were similar levels of nicotine biomarkers of exposure among vapers and smokers. Vapers had higher urinary levels of diethyl phthalate and flavoring agents (e.g., delta-decalactone). The metabolic profiles featured clusters of acylcarnitines and fatty acid derivatives. More consistent trends of elevated acylcarnitines and acylglycines in vapers were observed, which may suggest higher lipid peroxidation. Our approach in monitoring shifts of the urinary chemical landscape captured distinctive alterations resulting from vaping. Our results suggest similar nicotine metabolites in vapers and cigarette smokers. Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of inflammatory status and fatty acid oxidation, which were dysregulated in vapers. With higher lipid peroxidation, radical-forming flavoring, and higher level of specific nitrosamine, we observed a trend of elevated cancer-related biomarkers in vapers as well. Together, these data present a comprehensive profiling of urinary biochemicals that were dysregulated due to vaping.
Parental Perspectives on the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Infant, Child, and Adolescent Development
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to understand how families from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds perceived the impact of the pandemic on the development of their children. METHODS:We used a multimethod approach guided by Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, which identifies 5 developmental systems (micro, meso, exo, macro, and chrono). Semistructured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with parents living in 5 geographic regions of the United States between July and September 2021. Participants also completed the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Survey. RESULTS:Forty-eight families participated, half of whose preferred language was Spanish, with a total of 99 children ages newborn to 19 years. Most qualitative themes pertained to developmental effects of the microsystem and macrosystem. Although many families described negative effects of the pandemic on development, others described positive or no perceived effects. Some families reported inadequate government support in response to the pandemic as causes of stress and potential negative influences on child development. As context for their infant's development, families reported a variety of economic hardships on the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Survey, such as having to move out of their homes and experiencing decreased income. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In addition to negative impacts, many parents perceived positive pandemic-attributed effects on their child's development, mainly from increased time for parent-child interaction. Families described economic hardships that were exacerbated by the pandemic and that potentially affect child development and insufficient government responses to these hardships. These findings hold important lessons for leaders who wish to design innovative solutions that address inequities in maternal, family, and child health.
High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors amongst young adults in the United Arab Emirates: the UAE Healthy Future Study
BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), it accounts for 40% of mortality. CVD is caused by multiple cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) including obesity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension and central obesity. However, there are limited studies focusing on the CVD risk burden among young Emirati adults. This study investigates the burden of CRFs in a sample of young Emiratis, and estimates the distribution in relation to sociodemographic and behavioral determinants. METHODS:Data was used from the baseline data of the UAE Healthy Future Study volunteers. The study participants were aged 18 to 40 years. The study analysis was based on self-reported questionnaires, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as blood analysis. RESULTS:A total of 5167 participants were included in the analysis; 62% were males and the mean age of the sample was 25.7 years. The age-adjusted prevalence was 26.5% for obesity, 11.7% for dysglycemia, 62.7% for dyslipidemia, 22.4% for hypertension and 22.5% for central obesity. The CRFs were distributed differently when compared within social and behavioral groups. For example, obesity, dyslipidemia and central obesity in men were found higher among smokers than non-smokers (p < 0.05). And among women with lower education, all CRFs were reported significantly higher than those with higher education, except for hypertension. Most CRFs were significantly higher among men and women with positive family history of common non-communicable diseases. CONCLUSIONS:CRFs are highly prevalent in the young Emirati adults of the UAE Healthy Future Study. The difference in CRF distribution among social and behavioral groups can be taken into account to target group-specific prevention measures.
Longitudinal data support university-based biomedical entrepreneurship education programs
Social Support and Breastfeeding Outcomes Among a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Social support is a modifiable social determinant of health that shapes breastfeeding outcomes and may contribute to racial and ethnic breastfeeding disparities. This study characterizes the relationship between social support and early breastfeeding. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected in 2019-2021 for an RCT. Social support was measured using the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Social Support Instrument. Outcomes, collected by self-report, included (1) early breastfeeding within the first 21 days of life, (2) planned breastfeeding duration, and (3) confidence in meeting breastfeeding goals. Each outcome was modeled using proportional odds regression, adjusting for covariates. Analysis was conducted in 2021-2022. RESULTS:Self-reported race and ethnicity among 883 mothers were 50% Hispanic, 17% Black, 23% White, and 10% other. A large proportion (88%) of mothers were breastfeeding. Most breastfeeding mothers (82%) planned to breastfeed for at least 6 months, with more than half (58%) planning to continue for 12 months or more. Most women (65%) were confident or very confident in meeting their breastfeeding duration goal. In adjusted models, perceived social support was associated with planned breastfeeding duration (p=0.042) but not with early breastfeeding (p=0.873) or confidence in meeting breastfeeding goals (p=0.427). Among the covariates, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower breastfeeding confidence (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The associations between perceived social support and breastfeeding outcomes are nuanced. In this sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers, social support was associated with longer planned breastfeeding duration but not with early breastfeeding or breastfeeding confidence.
The Biomedical Entrepreneurship Skills Development Program for the Advancement of Research Translation: Foundations of Biomedical Startups course, metrics, and impact
Background/Objective: A growing number of biomedical doctoral graduates are entering the biotechnology and industry workforce, though most lack training in business practice. Entrepreneurs can benefit from venture creation and commercialization training that is largely absent from standard biomedical educational curricula. The NYU Biomedical Entrepreneurship Educational Program (BEEP) seeks to fill this training gap to prepare and motivate biomedical entrepreneurs to develop an entrepreneurial skill set, thus accelerating the pace of innovation in technology and business ventures. Methods: The NYU BEEP Model was developed and implemented with funding from NIDDK and NCATS. The program consists of a core introductory course, topic-based interdisciplinary workshops, venture challenges, on-line modules, and mentorship from experts. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of the core, introductory course, Foundations of Biomedical Startups, through the use of pre/post-course surveys and free-response answers. Results: After 2 years, 153 participants (26% doctoral students, 23% post-doctoral PhDs, 20% faculty, 16% research staff, 15% other) have completed the course. Evaluation data show self-assessed knowledge gain in all domains. The percentage of students rating themselves as either competent or on the way to being an expert in all areas was significantly higher post-course (P < 0.05). In each content area, the percentages of participants rating themselves as very interested increased post-course. 95% of those surveyed reported the course met its objectives, and 95% reported a higher likelihood of pursuing commercialization of discoveries post-course. Conclusion: NYU BEEP can serve as a model to develop similar curricula/programs to enhance entrepreneurial activity of early-stage researchers.
Social Capital and Sleep Outcomes Across Childhood in United States Families
OBJECTIVE:To examine whether aspects of social capital, or benefits received from social relationships, are associated with regular bedtime and sleep duration across childhood in US families with lower income. METHODS:Cross-sectional study using the 2018-19 National Survey of Children's Health in participants with incomes <400% federal poverty level. Separately for early childhood (0-5 years), school-age (6-12 years), and adolescence (13-17 years), we used weighted logistic regression to examine associations between social capital (measured by family social cohesion, parent social support, child social support) and sleep (measured by regular bedtime, sleep duration, adequate sleep per American of Academy of Sleep guidelines). Path analysis tested whether regular bedtime mediated associations between social capital and sleep duration. RESULTS:In our sample (N = 35,438), 84.9% had a regular bedtime, 60.2% had adequate sleep. Family social cohesion was associated with sleep duration and adequate sleep (infancy: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.18 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32, 3.60]; school age: aOR 2.03 [95% CI, 1.57, 2.63]; adolescence: aOR 2.44 [95% CI, 1.94, 3.09]). In toddlerhood, parent social support was associated with adequate sleep (aOR 1.44 [95% CI, 1.06, 1.96]). In adolescence, child social support was associated with regular bedtime (aOR 1.70 [95% CI, 1.25, 2.32]. Across childhood, associations between family social cohesion and sleep duration were partially mediated by regular bedtime. CONCLUSIONS:Family social cohesion was associated with adequate sleep across childhood, this was partially mediated by regular bedtime. Associations between social support and sleep outcomes varied by development stage. Future work should consider how supportive relationships may influence child sleep outcomes.