person:Alexander Glick (glicka01) or goldg01 or grossr06 or messim01 or Rebecca Rosenberg (rosenr14) or tomops01 or yinh02 or ahf1 or weitzm01
Obesity in Children
Child obesity is widely prevalent, and general pediatricians play an important role in identifying and caring for patients with obesity. Appropriate evaluation and treatment require an understanding of the complex etiology of child obesity, its intergenerational transmission, and its epidemiologic trends, including racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics has published screening, evaluation, and treatment guidelines based on the best available evidence. However, gaps in evidence remain, and implementation of evidence-based recommendations can be challenging. It is important to review optimal care in both the primary care and multidisciplinary weight management settings. This allows for timely evaluation and appropriate referrals, with the pediatrician playing a key role in advocating for patients at higher risk. There is also a role for larger-scale prevention and policy measures that would not only aid pediatricians in managing obesity but greatly benefit child health on a population scale.
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Maternal Social Support and Relationship to Mother-Infant Health Behaviors
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine racial and ethnic differences in maternal social support in infancy and the relationship between social support and mother-infant health behaviors. METHODS:Secondary analysis of baseline data from a multisite obesity prevention trial that enrolled mothers and their two-month-old infants. Behavioral and social support data were collected via questionnaire. We used modified Poisson regression to determine association between health behaviors and financial and emotional social support, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS:826 mother-infant dyads (27.3% Non-Hispanic Black, 18.0% Non-Hispanic White, 50.1% Hispanic and 4.6% Non-Hispanic Other). Half of mothers were born in the U.S.; 87% were Medicaid-insured. There were no racial/ethnic differences in social support controlling for maternal nativity. U.S.-born mothers were more likely to have emotional and financial support (rate ratio [RR] 1.14 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.21 and RR 1.23 95% CI: 1.11, 1.37, respectively) versus mothers born outside the U.S. Mothers with financial support were less likely to exclusively feed with breast milk (RR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.87) yet more likely to have tummy time â‰¥12min (RR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.59) versus mothers without financial support. Mothers with emotional support were less likely to report feeding with breast milk (RR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.97) versus mothers without emotional support. CONCLUSIONS:Nativity, not race or ethnicity, is a significant determinant of maternal social support. Greater social support was not universally associated with healthy behaviors. Interventions may wish to consider the complex nature of social support and population-specific social support needs.
The greenlight plus trial: Comparative effectiveness of a health information technology intervention vs. health communication intervention in primary care offices to prevent childhood obesity
BACKGROUND:The first 1000Â days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical window for establishing a healthy growth trajectory to prevent childhood obesity and its associated long-term comorbidities. The purpose of this manuscript is to detail the methods for a multi-site, comparative effectiveness trial designed to prevent childhood overweight and obesity from birth to age 2Â years. METHODS:This study is a multi-site, individually randomized trial testing the comparative effectiveness of two active intervention arms: 1) the Greenlight intervention; and 2) the Greenlight Plus intervention. The Greenlight intervention is administered by trained pediatric healthcare providers at each well-child visit from 0 to 18Â months and consists of a low health literacy toolkit used during clinic visits to promote shared goal setting. Families randomized to Greenlight Plus receive the Greenlight intervention plus a health information technology intervention, which includes: 1) personalized, automated text-messages that facilitate caregiver self-monitoring of tailored and age-appropriate child heath behavior goals; and 2) a web-based, personalized dashboard that tracks child weight status, progress on goals, and electronic Greenlight content access. We randomized 900 parent-infant dyads, recruited from primary care clinics across six academic medical centers. The study's primary outcome is weight for length trajectory from birth through 24Â months. CONCLUSIONS:By delivering a personalized and tailored health information technology intervention that is asynchronous to pediatric primary care visits, we aim to achieve improvements in child growth trajectory through two years of age among a sample of geographically, socioeconomically, racially, and ethnically diverse parent-child dyads.
Association between depression, happiness, and sleep duration: data from the UAE healthy future pilot study
BACKGROUND:The United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS) is one of the first large prospective cohort studies and one of the few studies in the region which examines causes and risk factors for chronic diseases among the nationals of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aim of this study is to investigate the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) as a screening instrument for depression among the UAEHFS pilot participants. METHODS:The UAEHFS pilot data were analyzed to examine the relationship between the PHQ-8 and possible confounding factors, such as self-reported happiness, and self-reported sleep duration (hours) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. RESULTS:Out of 517 participants who met the inclusion criteria, 487 (94.2%) participants filled out the questionnaire and were included in the statistical analysis using 100 multiple imputations. 231 (44.7%) were included in the primary statistical analysis after omitting the missing values. Participants' median age was 32.0 years (Interquartile Range: 24.0, 39.0). In total, 22 (9.5%) of the participant reported depression. Females have shown significantly higher odds of reporting depression than males with an odds ratioâ€‰=â€‰3.2 (95% CI:1.17, 8.88), and there were approximately 5-fold higher odds of reporting depression for unhappy than for happy individuals. For one interquartile-range increase in age and BMI, the odds ratio of reporting depression was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0) and 1.8 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.32) respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Females are more likely to report depression compared to males. Increasing age may decrease the risk of reporting depression. Unhappy individuals have approximately 5-fold higher odds of reporting depression compared to happy individuals. A higher BMI was associated with a higher risk of reporting depression. In a sensitivity analysis, individuals who reported less than 6Â h of sleep per 24Â h were more likely to report depression than those who reported 7Â h of sleep.
Do Appetite Traits Mediate the Link between Birth Weight and Later Child Weight in Low-Income Hispanic Families?
Collateral benefits from a school-readiness intervention on breastfeeding: A cross-domain impact evaluation
This study evaluated the collateral, or unanticipated, impacts of Smart Beginnings (SB), a two-site, tiered intervention designed to promote responsive parenting and school readiness, on breastfeeding intensity in a low-income sample. Impact analyses for the SB intervention were conducted using an intent-to-treat design leveraging a two-arm random assignment structure. Mothers assigned to the SB intervention group were more than three times more likely to give breastmilk as the only milk source at infant age 6 months than mothers assigned to the control group at one site, an effect not evident at the other study site. As development and growth are the two most salient domains of child health, understanding how interventions impact subsequent parenting practices across both domains is critical to address long-term economic and racial/ethnic disparities. Implications of the findings are discussed for improving the efficacy of interventions based on paediatric primary care.
Integrating medicine, engineering and business to educate early-stage researchers in cardiovascular device development
Protective Effect of Prenatal Social Support on the Intergenerational Transmission of Obesity in Low-Income Hispanic Families
Infant Feeding Practices and Social Support Networks Among Immigrant Chinese American Mothers With Economic Disadvantage in New York City
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Maternal social support promotes healthy infant feeding practices, which influence healthy growth and development. Less is known about how the interplay of social support networks and multicultural health beliefs may influence infant feeding practices, particularly among immigrant Chinese American mothers with economic disadvantage and low breastfeeding rates. RESEARCH AIM/UNASSIGNED:To explore the role of social support networks in the development of infant feeding practices in immigrant Chinese American mothers with infants. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:= 25) at a federally qualified health center in the Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. Data were analyzed by a multicultural, multidisciplinary team using qualitative thematic analysis and the constant comparative method to identify and iteratively refine emerging codes. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Three themes emerged describing how broad transnational communities and close family and friends influence maternal-infant feeding practices: (1) Gathering and processing infant feeding information from broad transnational resources (i.e., from both the mother's country of residence and the mother's country of origin); (2) aligning maternal feeding attitudes with cultural health beliefs of local social networks; and (3) gaining confidence with transactional maternal-infant feeding interactions. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Strategies to promote healthy infant feeding should consider how family supports and culturally-relevant coaching can help align multilevel transnational social networks with healthy infant feeding practices.
Maternal Early-Life Risk Factors and Later Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UAE Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS)
Limited studies have focused on maternal early-life risk factors and the later development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We aimed to estimate the GDM prevalence and examine the associations of maternal early-life risk factors, namely: maternal birthweight, parental smoking at birth, childhood urbanicity, ever-breastfed, parental education attainment, parental history of diabetes, childhood overall health, childhood body size, and childhood height, with later GDM. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the UAE Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS) baseline data (February 2016 to April 2022) on 702 ever-married women aged 18 to 67 years. We fitted a Poisson regression to estimate the risk ratio (RR) for later GDM and its 95% confidence interval (CI). The GDM prevalence was 5.1%. In the fully adjusted model, females with low birthweight were four times more likely (RR 4.04, 95% CI 1.36-12.0) and females with a parental history of diabetes were nearly three times more likely (RR 2.86, 95% CI 1.10-7.43) to report later GDM. In conclusion, maternal birthweight and parental history of diabetes were significantly associated with later GDM. Close glucose monitoring during pregnancy among females with either a low birth weight and/or parental history of diabetes might help to prevent GDM among this high-risk group.