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Neuropsychiatric symptoms in people living with dementia receiving home health services

Lassell, Rebecca K F; Lin, Shih-Yin; Convery, Kimberly; Fletcher, Jason; Chippendale, Tracy; Jones, Tessa; Durga, Aditi; Galvin, James E; Rupper, Randall W; Brody, Abraham A
BACKGROUND:We sought to describe neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) among people living with dementia (PLWD) from diverse racial and ethnic groups receiving home health services while accounting for dementia severity, individual symptom prevalence, and neighborhood disadvantage. METHODS:A prospective study using cross-sectional data from n = 192 PLWD receiving skilled home healthcare in New Jersey enrolled in the Dementia Symptom Management at Home Program trial. We prospectively measured symptom prevalence with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire and dementia severity using the Quick Dementia Rating System. A one-way ANOVA determined NPS prevalence by dementia severity (mild, moderate, severe). Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the association of individual symptom prevalence with race and ethnicity and cross tabs to descriptively stratify individual symptom prevalence by dementia severity among groups. A Pearson correlation was performed to determine if a correlation existed among neighborhood disadvantages measured by the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) state decile scores and NPS prevalence and severity. RESULTS:Participants identified as non-Hispanic White (50%), non-Hispanic Black (30%), or Hispanic (13%). NPS were prevalent in 97% of participants who experienced 5.4 ± 2.6 symptoms with increased severity (10.8 ± 6.6) and care partner distress (13.8 ± 10.8). NPS increased with dementia severity (p = 0.004) with the greatest difference seen between individuals with mild dementia (4.3 ± 2.3) versus severe dementia (5.9 ± 2.3; p = 0.002). Few differences were found in symptom prevalence by racial and ethnic sub-groups. Nighttime behaviors were higher in non-Hispanic Black (78%), compared with non-Hispanic Whites (46%) with moderate dementia, p = 0.042. State ADI scores were not correlated with the number of NPS reported, or severity. CONCLUSIONS:NPS were prevalent and increased with dementia severity with commonalities among racial and ethnic groups with varying levels of neighborhood disadvantage. There is a need for effective methods for improving NPS identification, assessment, and management broadly for homebound PLWD.
PMID: 37572061
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5613202

Nurses, Psychological Distress, and Burnout: Is There an App for That? [Comment]

Murali, Komal Patel; Brody, Abraham A; Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski
PMID: 37772942
ISSN: 2325-6621
CID: 5607252

Complex Care Needs at the End of Life for Seriously Ill Adults With Multiple Chronic Conditions

Murali, Komal Patel; Merriman, John D; Yu, Gary; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Kelley, Amy S; Brody, Abraham A
Understanding the complex care needs of seriously ill adults with multiple chronic conditions with and without cancer is critical for the delivery of high-quality serious illness and palliative care at the end of life. The objective of this secondary data analysis of a multisite randomized clinical trial in palliative care was to elucidate the clinical profile and complex care needs of seriously ill adults with multiple chronic conditions and to highlight key differences among those with and without cancer at the end of life. Of the 213 (74.2%) older adults who met criteria for multiple chronic conditions (eg, 2 or more chronic conditions requiring regular care with limitations of daily living), 49% had a diagnosis of cancer. Hospice enrollment was operationalized as an indicator for severity of illness and allowed for the capture of complex care needs of those deemed to be nearing the end of life. Individuals with cancer had complex symptomatology with a higher prevalence of nausea, drowsiness, and poor appetite and end of life and lower hospice enrollment. Individuals with multiple chronic conditions without cancer had lower functional status, greater number of medications, and higher hospice enrollment. The care of seriously ill older adults with multiple chronic conditions requires tailored approaches to improve outcomes and quality of care across health care settings, particularly at the end of life.
PMCID:10175220
PMID: 37040386
ISSN: 1539-0705
CID: 5496412

"I Have a Lotta Sad Feelin'" - Unaddressed Mental Health Needs and Self-Support Strategies in Medicaid-Funded Assisted Living

David, Daniel; Lassell, Rebecca K F; Mazor, Melissa; Brody, Abraham A; Schulman-Green, Dena
OBJECTIVE:To investigate mental health needs and barriers to seeking mental health support in Medicaid-funded Assisted Living Facility (M-ALF). DESIGN:A multimethod, qualitative-dominant descriptive design using questionnaires and semistructured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:The study occurred at a M-ALF in the Bronx, New York. A researcher in residence recruited 13 residents (11 Black or African American, 2 Asian) using purposive sampling. METHODS:Demographic data and mental health indicators (depression, anxiety, stress, hopelessness) were measured with questionnaires (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Hopelessness Survey) and analyzed with descriptive statistics. Interviews were conducted between June and November 2021, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. RESULTS:Thirteen residents (mean age: 73.4 years, mean length of stay: 3.5 years; range: 1.0-7.5) completed data collection. Quantitatively indicators of unmet mental health were common. Qualitatively, residents reported barriers to mental health access to address depression, anxiety, and substance use. This was accompanied by concerns surrounding loss of autonomy, mistrust for M-ALF organizational support, isolation and uncertainty about how to receive mental health support. Perspectives were shaped by past experiences with institutional living, serious illness, and being unhoused. Themes and subthemes were (1) mental health need (unmet mental health need, depression, and anxiety and seeking support through non-mental health resources) and (2) barriers to mental health support (dissatisfaction with M-ALF care, perceived threats to autonomy, desire for autonomy that leads to diminished care seeking). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Residents of M-ALF have mental health needs for which care is stymied by loss of autonomy, lack of resources, and the M-ALF environment. Residents use unconventional resources to address needs that may be neither efficient nor effective. Novel mental health interventions and processes are needed to improve mental health access and should prioritize residents' desire for autonomy and the unique circumstances of living in M-ALF.
PMID: 37169346
ISSN: 1538-9375
CID: 5541542

One accurate measurement is worth 1000 expert opinions-Assessing quality care in assisted living [Editorial]

David, Daniel; Brody, Abraham A
PMID: 36809671
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5434932

Engagement, Advance Care Planning, and Hospice Use in a Telephonic Nurse-Led Palliative Care Program for Persons Living with Advanced Cancer

Liddicoat Yamarik, Rebecca; Chiu, Laraine Ann; Flannery, Mara; Van Allen, Kaitlyn; Adeyemi, Oluwaseun; Cuthel, Allison M; Brody, Abraham A; Goldfeld, Keith S; Schrag, Deborah; Grudzen, Corita R
Persons living with advanced cancer have intensive symptoms and psychosocial needs that often result in visits to the Emergency Department (ED). We report on program engagement, advance care planning (ACP), and hospice use for a 6-month longitudinal nurse-led, telephonic palliative care intervention for patients with advanced cancer as part of a larger randomized trial. Patients 50 years and older with metastatic solid tumors were recruited from 18 EDs and randomized to receive nursing calls focused on ACP, symptom management, and care coordination or specialty outpatient palliative care (ClinicialTrials.gov: NCT03325985). One hundred and five (50%) graduated from the 6-month program, 54 (26%) died or enrolled in hospice, 40 (19%) were lost to follow-up, and 19 (9%) withdrew prior to program completion. In a Cox proportional hazard regression, withdrawn subjects were more likely to be white and have a low symptom burden compared to those who did not withdraw. Two hundred eighteen persons living with advanced cancer were enrolled in the nursing arm, and 182 of those (83%) completed some ACP. Of the subjects who died, 43/54 (80%) enrolled in hospice. Our program demonstrated high rates of engagement, ACP, and hospice enrollment. Enrolling subjects with a high symptom burden may result in even greater program engagement.
PMCID:10136814
PMID: 37190238
ISSN: 2072-6694
CID: 5496502

Using meta-research to foster diverse, equitable, and inclusive collaborative research networks

Stevens, Elizabeth R; Brody, Abraham A; Epps, Fayron; Sloan, Danetta H; Sherman, Scott E
Fostering diverse, equitable, and inclusive collaborative research networks is important for advancing the field of aging research. Despite sizeable investment in research consortia and career development programs, there has been only moderate progress toward diversifying the research workforce studying aging. Without critically examining what works and what does not, continuing to place more resources into these same strategies may not result in a substantial improvement in diversity or the creation of collaborative networks. Using meta-research to rigorously evaluate potential strategies to promote diversity and collaboration may yield important insights that can be used to improve upon current efforts. For this reason, we sought to describe meta-research and highlight how its principles can be used to achieve the aging research community's collaboration and diversity goals.
PMID: 36585905
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5409772

Improving sleep using mentored behavioral and environmental restructuring (SLUMBER): A randomized stepped-wedge design trial to evaluate a comprehensive sleep intervention in skilled nursing facilities

Chodosh, Joshua; Mitchell, Michael N; Cadogan, Mary; Brody, Abraham A; Alessi, Cathy A; Hernandez, Diana E; Mangold, Michael; Martin, Jennifer L
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Poor sleep is ubiquitous in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and is associated with a myriad of negative symptoms. Non-pharmacological interventions can improve sleep, yet sustainability has not been demonstrated. The Improving Sleep Using Mentored Behavioral and Environmental Restructuring (SLUMBER) trial will test whether a staff mentoring approach to address resident sleep issues positively impacts sleep quality and whether improved sleep benefits mood, cognitive performance, and activity engagement for residents living in SNFs. INTERVENTION/METHODS:This is a four-year hybrid type I effectiveness/implementation randomized stepped-wedge trial using a comprehensive sleep improvement program conducted in three urban SNFs. METHODS:We will provide SNF staff with sleep promotion strategies over a four-month intervention. Staff will have access to in-person workshops, webinars, weekly sleep pearls via text messaging, environmental data, and expert program mentors. We will consent residents for data collection (at baseline, end of intervention, and three- and six-months post-intervention) including resident observations, questionnaires, and wrist actigraphy (to objectively measure sleep). We will also use selected Minimum Data Set 3.0 (MDS) measures. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SLUMBER uses a unique strategy to iteratively improve sleep interventions through SNF staff buy-in, expert mentoring, and technological supports within a quality improvement framework. As a stepped-wedge trial, the initial SNF units provide opportunities for program improvement in subsequent units, accounting for variation across resident populations at different sites. Protocol limitations include strategies which may require substantial customization for greater spread. A comprehensive staff training program that addresses both sleep quality and related symptoms has the opportunity for considerable dissemination. TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:USGOV Clinical Trials ID: NCT03327324.
PMID: 36716989
ISSN: 1559-2030
CID: 5435302

Defining a taxonomy of Medicare-funded home-based clinical care using claims data

Ankuda, Claire K; Ornstein, Katherine A; Leff, Bruce; Rajagopalan, Subashini; Kinosian, Bruce; Brody, Abraham A; Ritchie, Christine S
BACKGROUND:As more Americans age in place, it is critical to understand care delivery in the home. However, data on the range of home-based services provided by Medicare is limited. We define a taxonomy of clinical care in the home funded through fee-for-service Medicare and methods to identify receipt of those services. METHODS:We analyzed Fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare claims data from a nationally-representative cohort of older adults, the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), to identify home-based clinical care. We included 6,664 NHATS enrollees age ≥ 70 and living in the community, observed an average of 3 times each on claims-linked NHATS surveys. We examined provider and service type of home-based clinical care to identify a taxonomy of 5 types: home-based medical care (physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner visits), home-based podiatry, skilled home health care (SHHC), hospice, and other fee-for-service (FFS) home-based care. We further characterized home-based clinical care by detailed care setting and visit types. RESULTS:From 2011-2016, 17.8%-20.8% of FFS Medicare beneficiaries age ≥ 70 received Medicare-funded home-based clinical care. SHHC was the most common service (12.8%-16.1%), followed by other FFS home-based care (5.5%-6.5%), home-based medical care (3.2%-3.9%), and hospice (2.6%-3.0%). Examination of the other-FFS home-based care revealed imaging/diagnostics and laboratory testing to be the most common service. CONCLUSIONS:We define a taxonomy of clinical care provided in the home, serving 1 in 5 FFS Medicare beneficiaries. This approach can be used to identify and address research and clinical care gaps in home-based clinical care delivery.
PMCID:9900204
PMID: 36747175
ISSN: 1472-6963
CID: 5434842

Outcomes of home-based primary care for homebound older adults: a randomized clinical trial

Federman, Alex D; Brody, Abraham; Ritchie, Christine S; Egorova, Natalia; Arora, Arushi; Lubetsky, Sara; Goswami, Ruchir; Peralta, Maria; Reckrey, Jenny M; Boockvar, Kenneth; Shah, Shivani; Ornstein, Katherine A; Leff, Bruce; DeCherrie, Linda; Siu, Albert L
BACKGROUND:Homebound older adults are medically complex and often have difficulty accessing outpatient medical care. Home-based primary care (HBPC) may improve care and outcomes for this population but data from randomized trials of HBPC in the United States are limited. METHODS:We conducted a randomized controlled trial of HBPC versus office-based primary care for adults ages ≥65 years who reported ≥1 hospitalization in the prior 12 months and met the Medicare definition of homebound. HBPC was provided by teams consisting of a physician, nurse practitioner, nurse, and social worker. Data were collected at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Outcomes were quality of life, symptoms, satisfaction with care, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits. Recruitment was terminated early because more deaths were observed for intervention patients. RESULTS:The study enrolled 229 patients, 65.4% of planned recruitment. The mean age was 82 (9.0) years and 72.3% had dementia. Of those assigned to HBPC, 34.2% never received it. Intervention patients had greater satisfaction with care than controls (2.26, 95% CI 1.46-3.06, p < 0.0001; effect size 0.74) and lower hospitalization rates (-17.9%, 95% CI -31.0% to -1.0%; p = 0.001; number needed to treat 6, 95% CI 3-100). There were no significant differences in quality of life (1.25, 95% CI -0.39-2.89, p = 0.13), symptom burden (-1.92, 95% CI -5.22-1.37, p = 0.25) or ED visits (1.2%, 95% CI -10.5%-12.4%; p = 0.87). There were 24 (21.1%) deaths among intervention patients and 12 (10.7%) among controls (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:HBPC was associated with greater satisfaction with care and lower hospitalization rates but also more deaths compared to office-based primary care. Additional research is needed to understand the nature of the higher death rate for HBPC patients, as well as to determine the effects of HBPC on quality of life and symptom burden given the trial's early termination.
PMID: 36054295
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5337912