Multimodality Imaging of Myocardial Viability
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Myocardial viability is an important pathophysiologic concept which may have significant clinical impact in patients with left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic heart disease. Understanding the imaging modalities used to assess viability, and the clinical implication of their findings, is critical for clinical decision-making in this population. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:The ability of dobutamine echocardiography, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to predict functional recovery following revascularization is well-established. Despite different advantages and disadvantages for each imaging modality, each modality has demonstrated reasonable performance characteristics in identifying viable myocardium. Recent data, however, has called into question whether this functional recovery leads to improved clinical outcomes. Although the assessment of viability can be used to aid in clinical decision-making prior to revascularization, its broad application to all patients is limited by a lack of data confirming improvement in clinical outcomes. Thus, viability assessments may be best applied to select patients (such as those with increased surgical risk) and integrated with clinical, laboratory, and imaging data to guide clinical care. Future research efforts should be aimed at establishing the impact of viability on clinical outcomes.
Gout and Progression of Aortic Stenosis
BACKGROUND:Patients with aortic stenosis are nearly twice as likely to have a diagnosis of gout compared with individuals without aortic valve disease. METHODS:, and/or decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction due to aortic stenosis. RESULTS:/year [-0.16, -0.01], p=0.09); annualized change in peak velocity and mean gradient did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Progression to severe aortic stenosis was more frequent in patients with gout versus those without gout supporting the hypothesis that gout is a risk factor for aortic stenosis.
Quantifying Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Care Among Patients Evaluated for Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease
BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular care sex differences are controversial. We examined sex differences in management and clinical outcomes among patients undergoing noninvasive testing for ischemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS:In a rural integrated healthcare system, we identified adults age 40-79 without diagnosed IHD who underwent initial evaluation with a cardiac stress test with imaging or coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA), 2013-2014. We assessed sex differences in statin/aspirin therapy, revascularization, and adverse cardiovascular events. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association statin guidelines and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force aspirin guidelines were applied. RESULTS:Among 2213 patients evaluated for IHD, median age was 57 years, 48.8% were women, and 9% had a positive stress test/CTA. Women were more likely to be missing lipid values than men (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Mean ASCVD risk score at baseline was 7.2% in women versus 12.4% in men (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). There was no significant sex difference in statin therapy at baseline or 60-day follow-up. Women were less likely than men to be taking aspirin at baseline (adj. diff.â€‰=â€‰-8.5%; 95% CI, -4.2 to -12.9) and follow-up (adj. diff.â€‰=â€‰-7.7%; 95% CI, -3.3 to -12.1). There were no sex differences in revascularization after accounting for obstructive CAD or adverse cardiovascular outcomes during median follow-up of 33 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this contemporary cohort of patients with suspected IHD, women were less likely to receive lipid testing and aspirin therapy, but not statin therapy. Women did not experience worse outcomes. Sex differences in statin therapy reported by others may be due to inadequate accounting for baseline risk.
Association of Patient Beliefs and Preferences With Subsequent Testing After Initial Evaluation for Ischemic Heart Disease [Letter]
Association Between Gout and Aortic Stenosis
BACKGROUND: An independent association between gout and coronary artery disease is well established. The relationship between gout and valvular heart disease, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gout and aortic stenosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study. Aortic stenosis cases were identified through a review of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) reports. Age-matched controls were randomly selected from patients who had undergone TTE and did not have aortic stenosis. Charts were reviewed to identify diagnoses of gout and the earliest dates of gout and aortic stenosis diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1085 patients who underwent TTE, 112 aortic stenosis cases were identified. Cases and non-aortic stenosis controls (n=224) were similar in age and cardiovascular comorbidities. A history of gout was present in 21.4% (n=24) of aortic stenosis subjects compared with 12.5% (n=28) of controls (unadjusted OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.05-3.48, p=0.038). Multivariate analysis retained significance only for gout (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.00-4.32, p=0.049). Among subjects with aortic stenosis and gout, gout diagnosis preceded aortic stenosis diagnosis by 5.8 +/- 1.6 years. The age at onset of aortic stenosis was similar among patients with and without gout (78.7 +/- 1.8 vs. 75.8 +/- 1.0 years old, p=0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Aortic stenosis patients had a markedly higher prevalence of precedent gout than age-matched controls. Whether gout is a marker of, or a risk factor for the development of aortic stenosis remains uncertain. Studies investigating the potential role of gout in the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis are warranted and could have therapeutic implications.
Ankle-Brachial Index Testing at the Time of Stress Testing in Patients Without Known Atherosclerosis
BACKGROUND: Individuals referred for stress testing to identify coronary artery disease may have nonobstructive atherosclerosis, which is not detected by stress tests. Identification of increased risk despite a negative stress test could inform prevention efforts. Abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. HYPOTHESIS: Routine ABI testing in the stress laboratory will identify unrecognized peripheral arterial disease in some patients. METHODS: Participants referred for stress testing without known history of atherosclerotic disease underwent ABI testing (n = 451). Ankle-brachial index was assessed via simultaneous arm and leg pressure using standard measurement, automated blood-pressure cuffs at rest. Ankle-brachial index was measured after exercise in 296 patients and 30 healthy controls. Abnormal postexercise ABI was defined as a >20% drop in ABI or fall in ankle pressure by >30 mm Hg. RESULTS: Overall, 2.0% of participants had resting ABI =0.90, 3.1% had ABI >/=1.40, and 5.5% had borderline ABI. No patient with abnormal or borderline ABI had an abnormal stress test. Participants who met peripheral arterial disease screening criteria (age >/=65 or 50-64 with diabetes or smoking) tended toward greater frequency of low ABI (2.9% vs 1.0%; P = 0.06) and were more likely to have borderline ABI (0.91 to 0.99; 7.8% vs 2.9%; P = 0.006). Postexercise ABI was abnormal in 29.4% of patients and 30.0% of controls (P not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Ankle-brachial index screening at rest just before stress testing detected low ABI in 2.0% of participants, all of whom had negative stress tests.
Effect of rosiglitazone on survival in patients with diabetes mellitus treated for coronary artery disease
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of rosiglitazone on survival in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We carried out a drug-exposure analysis in 801 patients with DM and CAD in a cardiac catheterization laboratory registry (490 patients treated with a percutaneous coronary intervention, 224 patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting, and 87 patients treated with medication alone). RESULTS: A total of 193 patients (24.1%) were exposed to rosiglitazone. The median survival from the date of cardiac catheterization in the rosiglitazone group was 146.7 months versus 109.1 months in the unexposed group (P<0.001). At 5 years, the unadjusted survival was 82% in the rosiglitazone-exposed group versus 69% in the unexposed group (P<0.001). There was no difference in survival between rosiglitazone-exposed and rosiglitazone-unexposed patients in the groups treated with coronary artery bypass grafting or medical therapy (P=0.37 and 0.11, respectively). In a multivariable model, rosiglitazone exposure had no effect on mortality (hazard ratio=0.737; 95% confidence interval: 0.521-1.044, P=0.86). CONCLUSION: We conclude that exposure to rosiglitazone is not associated with increased mortality in diabetics who are treated for CAD. These findings support the notion that insulin sensitization with a thiazolidinedione is safe in carefully selected and treated patients with DM and CAD.
Lower Likelihood of Ischemia in AUC-designated Appropriate Referrals for Stress Echocardiography than Radionucleotide Imaging. [Meeting Abstract]
Nonischemic cardiomyopathy related to pegylated interferon and ribavirin [Letter]
Laptop-sized echocardiography machine versus full-sized top-of-the-line machine: a comparative study