Diagnostic criteria for apathy in neurocognitive disorders
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Apathy is common in neurocognitive disorders (NCD) but NCD-specific diagnostic criteria are needed. METHODS:The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials Methodology Apathy Work Group convened an expert group and sought input from academia, health-care, industry, and regulatory bodies. A modified Delphi methodology was followed, and included an extensive literature review, two surveys, and two meetings at international conferences, culminating in a consensus meeting in 2019. RESULTS:The final criteria reached consensus with more than 80% agreement on all parts and included: limited to people with NCD; symptoms persistent or frequently recurrent over at least 4Â weeks, a change from the patient's usual behavior, and including one of the following: diminished initiative, diminished interest, or diminished emotional expression/responsiveness; causing significant functional impairment and not exclusively explained by other etiologies. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:These criteria provide a framework for defining apathy as a unique clinical construct in NCD for diagnosis and further research.
Improving clinical trials: American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology recommendations
The major purpose of this American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology-sponsored meeting was to identify strategies for more efficiently detecting clinical drug effects, thus reducing the economic and scientific risks of investigating new chemical entities in psychiatric disorders. The meeting consisted of presentations and discussions by experts who repeatedly had difficulty pursuing scientific, public health--relevant goals. Many approaches to improving the detection of potentially beneficial agents were reviewed. In this article, we discuss technically feasible study improvements. The scope of inquiry included identifying means of shifting institutional and regulatory assumptions and processes, even to the point of seeking appropriate national incentives.