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Obesity Management in Adults: A Review

Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle; Schwartz, Jessica L; Bramante, Carolyn T; Nicklas, Jacinda M; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Jay, Melanie
IMPORTANCE:Obesity affects approximately 42% of US adults and is associated with increased rates of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, osteoarthritis, and premature death. OBSERVATIONS:A body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater is commonly used to define overweight, and a BMI of 30 or greater to define obesity, with lower thresholds for Asian populations (BMI ≥25-27.5), although use of BMI alone is not recommended to determine individual risk. Individuals with obesity have higher rates of incident cardiovascular disease. In men with a BMI of 30 to 39, cardiovascular event rates are 20.21 per 1000 person-years compared with 13.72 per 1000 person-years in men with a normal BMI. In women with a BMI of 30 to 39.9, cardiovascular event rates are 9.97 per 1000 person-years compared with 6.37 per 1000 person-years in women with a normal BMI. Among people with obesity, 5% to 10% weight loss improves systolic blood pressure by about 3 mm Hg for those with hypertension, and may decrease hemoglobin A1c by 0.6% to 1% for those with type 2 diabetes. Evidence-based obesity treatment includes interventions addressing 5 major categories: behavioral interventions, nutrition, physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic/bariatric procedures. Comprehensive obesity care plans combine appropriate interventions for individual patients. Multicomponent behavioral interventions, ideally consisting of at least 14 sessions in 6 months to promote lifestyle changes, including components such as weight self-monitoring, dietary and physical activity counseling, and problem solving, often produce 5% to 10% weight loss, although weight regain occurs in 25% or more of participants at 2-year follow-up. Effective nutritional approaches focus on reducing total caloric intake and dietary strategies based on patient preferences. Physical activity without calorie reduction typically causes less weight loss (2-3 kg) but is important for weight-loss maintenance. Commonly prescribed medications such as antidepressants (eg, mirtazapine, amitriptyline) and antihyperglycemics such as glyburide or insulin cause weight gain, and clinicians should review and consider alternatives. Antiobesity medications are recommended for nonpregnant patients with obesity or overweight and weight-related comorbidities in conjunction with lifestyle modifications. Six medications are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for long-term use: glucagon-like peptide receptor 1 (GLP-1) agonists (semaglutide and liraglutide only), tirzepatide (a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide/GLP-1 agonist), phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, and orlistat. Of these, tirzepatide has the greatest effect, with mean weight loss of 21% at 72 weeks. Endoscopic procedures (ie, intragastric balloon and endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty) can attain 10% to 13% weight loss at 6 months. Weight loss from metabolic and bariatric surgeries (ie, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) ranges from 25% to 30% at 12 months. Maintaining long-term weight loss is difficult, and clinical guidelines support the use of long-term antiobesity medications when weight maintenance is inadequate with lifestyle interventions alone. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE:Obesity affects approximately 42% of adults in the US. Behavioral interventions can attain approximately 5% to 10% weight loss, GLP-1 agonists and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide/GLP-1 receptor agonists can attain approximately 8% to 21% weight loss, and bariatric surgery can attain approximately 25% to 30% weight loss. Comprehensive, evidence-based obesity treatment combines behavioral interventions, nutrition, physical activity, pharmacotherapy, and metabolic/bariatric procedures as appropriate for individual patients.
PMID: 38015216
ISSN: 1538-3598
CID: 5610342

Reply by Elmaleh-Sachs, et al. to: Townsend and Cowl, and Miller et al

Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle; Balte, Pallavi; Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Allen, Norrina B; Baugh, Aaron; Bertoni, Alain G; Hankinson, John L; Pankow, Jim; Post, Wendy S; Schwartz, Joseph E; Smith, Benjamin M; Watson, Karol; Barr, R Graham
PMID: 35503649
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 5297572

Race/Ethnicity, Spirometry Reference Equations, and Prediction of Incident Clinical Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study

Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle; Balte, Pallavi; Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Allen, Norrina B; Baugh, Aaron; Bertoni, Alain G; Hankinson, John L; Pankow, Jim; Post, Wendy S; Schwartz, Joseph E; Smith, Benjamin M; Watson, Karol; Barr, R Graham
PMID: 34913853
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 5297542

Strange Bedfellows: Coordinating Medicare and Medicaid to Achieve Cost-Effective Care for Patients with the Greatest Health Needs

Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle; Schneider, Eric C
This perspective describes federal efforts in the United States (U.S.) to integrate care for an especially complex, vulnerable, and costly patient population: adults eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid insurance. The goal of the paper is to demystify for clinical policy leaders and practicing clinicians the origins and evolution of the Dual-Eligible Special Needs Plans (D-SNPs) recently permanently authorized by the U.S. Congress and to explore the potential for these policy changes to help such health plans improve care for the sickest and most vulnerable Americans.
PMID: 32462570
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 5297532

Cessation of oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome

Comarmond, C; Jego, P; Veyssier-Belot, C; Marie, I; Mekinian, A; Elmaleh-Sachs, A; Leroux, G; Saadoun, D; Oziol, E; Fraisse, T; Hyvernat, H; Thiercein-Legrand, M-F; Sarrot-Reynauld, F; Ferreira-Maldent, N; de Menthon, M; Goujard, C; Khau, D; Nguen, Y; Monnier, S; Michon, A; Castel, B; Decaux, O; Piette, J-C; Cacoub, P
Objective To study the outcome of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) after oral anticoagulant treatment cessation. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with APS experiencing cessation of oral anticoagulant and enrolled in a French multicentre observational cohort between January 2014 and January 2016. The main outcome was the occurrence of recurrent thrombotic event after oral anticoagulation cessation. Results Forty four APS patients interrupted oral anticoagulation. The median age was 43 (27-56) years. The median duration of anticoagulation was 21 (9-118) months. Main causes of oral anticoagulant treatment cessation were switch from vitamin K antagonists to aspirin in 15 patients, prolonged disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies in ten, bleeding complications in nine and a poor therapeutic adherence in six. Eleven (25%) patients developed a recurrent thrombotic event after oral anticoagulation cessation, including three catastrophic APS and one death due to lower limb ischemia. Antihypertensive treatment required at time of oral anticoagulants cessation seems to be an important factor associated with recurrent thrombosis after oral anticoagulant cessation (15.2% in patients with no relapse versus 45.5% in patients with recurrent thrombosis, p = 0.038). Oral anticoagulant treatment was re-started in 18 (40.9%) patients. Conclusion The risk of a new thrombotic event in APS patients who stopped their anticoagulation is high, even in those who showed a long lasting disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies. Except for the presence of treated hypertension, this study did not find a particular clinical or biological phenotype for APS patients who relapsed after anticoagulation cessation. Any stopping of anticoagulant in such patients should be done with caution.
PMID: 28355985
ISSN: 1477-0962
CID: 5297562

The Bellevue patient

Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle
ISSN: n/a
CID: 5354802

Changes in the Profile and Care of HIV-HCV Seropositive Patients in Two Cross-Sectional Surveys in France (2006 and 2013)

Cacoub, Patrice; Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Goujard, Cecile; Miaihes, Patrick; Morlat, Philippe; Chas, Julie; Goderel, Isabelle; Halfon, Philippe; Caron, Francois; Rey, David; Boue, Francois; Simon, Anne; Pol, Stanislas; Rosenthal, Eric, GERMIVIC Study Group
ISSN: 2155-6113
CID: 5354782

Iron deficiency anemia in women

Chapter by: Deen, Darwin; Elmaleh-Sachs, Arielle
in: Medical nutrition & disease : a case-based approach by Hark, Lisa; Deen, Darwin; Morrison, Gail [Eds]
Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2014
pp. 83-88
ISBN: 9781118652435
CID: 5354792