Left Atrial Appendage Tilt-Up-and-Turn-Left Maneuver: A Novel Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Imaging Maneuver to Characterize the Left Atrial Appendage and to Improve Transcatheter Closure Guidance [Case Report]
• Precise LAA anatomy must be established for LAA occlusion device selection. • We have developed the TUPLE maneuver, an acronym for “tilt up and turn left”. • The TUPLE maneuver facilitates LAA device selection and intraprocedural guidance.
The Double-Orifice Left Atrial Appendage: Multimodality and Virtual Transillumination Imaging [Case Report]
• LAA membranes are exceedingly rare with variable morphologies. • Thromboembolic risk with LAA membranes remains unknown. • Use of 3D TEE transillumination may assist in visualization and understanding.
Comparison of combined substrate-based mapping techniques to identify critical sites for ventricular tachycardia ablation
BACKGROUND:Established electroanatomic mapping techniques for substrate mapping for ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation includes voltage mapping, isochronal late activation mapping (ILAM), and fractionation mapping. Omnipolar mapping (Abbott Medical, Inc.) is a novel optimized bipolar electrogram creation technique with integrated local conduction velocity annotation. The relative utilities of these mapping techniques are unknown. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative utility of various substrate mapping techniques for the identification of critical sites for VT ablation. METHODS:Electroanatomic substrate maps were created and retrospectively analyzed in 27 patients in whom 33 VT critical sites were identified. RESULTS:. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:ILAM, fractionation, and CV mapping each identified distinct critical sites and provided a smaller area of interest than did voltage mapping alone. The sensitivity of novel mapping modalities improved with greater local point density.
Device-Associated Thrombus with Watchman FLX Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device: A Report of Two Cases [Case Report]
• Individual cases of Watchman FLX DAT are scare in literature. • The Watchman FLX has shown lower rates of DAT than the Watchman 2.0. • Thrombus formation is still possible in rare instances with the Watchman FLX.
Catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with an irrigated contact-force sensing radiofrequency ablation catheter
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) slow pathway modification for catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is traditionally performed using a 4-mm nonirrigated (NI) RF ablation catheter. Slow pathway modification using irrigated, contact-force sensing (ICFS) RFA catheters has been described in case reports, but the outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS:Acute procedural outcomes of 200 consecutive patients undergoing slow pathway modification for AVNRT were analyzed. A 3.5-mm ICFS RFA catheter (ThermoCool SmartTouch STSF, Biosense Webster, Inc.) was utilized in 134 patients, and a 4-mm NI RFA catheter (EZ Steer, Biosense Webster, Inc.) was utilized in 66 patients. Electroanatomic maps were retrospectively analyzed in a blinded fashion to determine the proximity of ablation lesions to the His region. RESULTS:The baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. Total RF time was significantly lower in the ICFS group compared to the NI group (5.53 ± 4.6 vs. 6.24 ± 4.9 min, p = 0.03). Median procedure time was similar in both groups (ICFS, 108.0 (87.5-131.5) min vs. NI, 100.0 (85.0-125.0) min; p = 0.2). Ablation was required in closer proximity to the His region in the NI group compared to the ICFS group (14.4 ± 5.9 vs. 16.7 ± 6.4 mm, respectively, p = 0.01). AVNRT was rendered noninducible in all patients, and there was no arrhythmia recurrence during follow-up in both groups. Catheter ablation was complicated by AV block in one patient in the NI group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Slow pathway modification for catheter ablation of AVNRT using an ICFS RFA catheter is feasible, safe, and may facilitate shorter duration ablation while avoiding ablation in close proximity to the His region.
Temporal trends in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures at an academic medical center: 2011-2021
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Radiofrequency ablation technology for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. We investigated the impact of technological and procedural advances on procedure times and ablation outcomes at a major academic medical center over a 10-year period. METHODS:Clinical data was collected from patients who presented to NYU Langone Health between 2011 and 2021 for a first-time AF ablation. Time to redo AF ablation or direct current cardioversion (DCCV) for recurrent AF during a 3-year follow-up period was determined and correlated with ablation technology and practices, antiarrhythmic medications, and patient comorbid conditions. RESULTS:From 2011 to 2021, the cardiac electrophysiology lab adopted irrigated-contact force ablation catheters, high-power short duration ablation lesions, steady-pacing, jet ventilation, and eliminated stepwise linear ablation for AF ablation. During this time the number of first time AF ablations increased from 403 to 1074, the percentage of patients requiring repeat AF-related intervention within 3-years of the index procedure dropped from 22% to 14%, mean procedure time decreased from 271 ± 65 to 135 ± 36 min, and mean annual major adverse event rate remained constant at 1.1 ± 0.5%. Patient comorbid conditions increased during this time period and antiarrhythmic use was unchanged. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of redo-AF ablation or DCCV following an initial AF ablation at a single center decreased 36% over a 10-year period. Procedural and technological changes likely contributed to this improvement, despite increased AF related comorbidities.
Conduction velocity is reduced in the posterior wall of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with normal bipolar voltage undergoing ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We investigated characteristics of left atrial conduction in patients with HCM, paroxysmal AF and normal bipolar voltage. BACKGROUND:Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) exhibit abnormal cardiac tissue arrangement. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased fourfold in patients with HCM and confers a fourfold increased risk of death. Catheter ablation is less effective in HCM, with twofold increased risk of AF recurrence. The mechanisms of AF perpetuation in HCM are poorly understood. METHODS:We analyzed 20 patients with HCM and 20 controls presenting for radiofrequency ablation of paroxysmal AF normal left atrial voltage(> 0.5 mV). Intracardiac electrograms were extracted from the CARTO mapping system and analyzed using Matlab/Python code interfacing with Core OpenEP software. Conduction velocity maps were calculated using local activation time gradients. RESULTS: = 0.13, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Atrial conduction velocity is significantly reduced in patients with HCM and paroxysmal AF, possibly contributing to arrhythmia persistence after catheter ablation.
Outcomes and atrial substrate analysis in patients with HIV undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Patients with HIV infection have increased risk of atrial fibrillation, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the utility of catheter ablation in this population are not well-studied. We aimed to characterize outcomes of atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial substrate in patients with HIV. METHODS:The study was a retrospective propensity score-matched analysis of patients with and without HIV undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. A search was performed in the electronic medical record for all patients with HIV who received initial atrial fibrillation ablation from 2011 to 2020. After calculating propensity scores for HIV, matching was performed with patients without HIV by using nearest-neighbor matching without replacement in a 1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was freedom from atrial arrhythmia and secondary outcomes were freedom from atrial fibrillation, freedom from atrial tachycardia, and freedom from repeat ablation, compared by log-rank analysis. The procedures of patients with HIV who underwent repeat ablation at our institution were further analyzed for etiology of recurrence. To further characterize the left atrial substrate, a subsequent case-control analysis was then performed for a set of randomly chosen 10 patients with HIV matched with 10 without HIV to compare minimum and maximum voltage at nine pre-specified regions of the left atrium. RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients with HIV were identified. All were prescribed antiretroviral therapy at time of ablation. These patients were matched with 54 patients without HIV by propensity score. 86.4% of patients with HIV and 76.9% of controls were free of atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardia at 1 year (p = .509). Log-rank analysis showed no difference in freedom from atrial arrhythmia (p value .971), atrial fibrillation (p-value .346), atrial tachycardia (p value .306), or repeat ablation (p value .401) after initial atrial fibrillation ablation in patients with HIV compared to patients without HIV. In patients with HIV with recurrent atrial fibrillation, the majority had pulmonary vein reconnection (67%). There were no significant differences in minimum or maximum voltage at any of the nine left atrial regions between the matched patients with and without HIV. CONCLUSIONS:Ablation to treat atrial fibrillation in patients with HIV, but without overt AIDS is frequently successful therapy. The majority of patients with recurrence of atrial fibrillation had pulmonary vein reconnection, suggesting infrequent nonpulmonary vein substrate. In this population, the left atrial voltage in patients with HIV is similar to that of patients without HIV. These findings suggest that the pulmonary veins remain a critical component to the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation in patients with HIV.
Long-Term Outcomes of Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy Compared with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Background: data on the natural course and prognosis of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TICMP) and comparison with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies (IDCM) are scarce. Objective: To compare the clinical presentation, comorbidities, and long-term outcomes of TICMP patients with IDCM patients. Methods: a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with new-onset TICMP or IDCM. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, thromboembolic events, assist device, heart transplantation, and ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF). The secondary endpoint was recurrent hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) exacerbation. Results: the cohort was comprised of 64 TICMP and 66 IDCM patients. The primary composite endpoint and all-cause mortality were similar between the groups during a median follow-up of ~6 years (36% versus 29%, p = 0.33 and 22% versus 15%, p = 0.15, respectively). Survival analysis showed no significant difference between TICMP and IDCM groups for the composite endpoint (p = 0.75), all-cause mortality (p = 0.65), and hospitalizations due to heart failure exacerbation. Nonetheless, the incidence of recurrent hospitalization was significantly higher in TICMP patients (incidence rate ratio 1.59; p = 0.009). Conclusions: patients with TICMP have similar long-term outcomes as those with IDCM. However, it portends a higher rate of HF readmissions, mostly due to arrhythmia recurrences.
Urgent catheter ablation for treatment refractory symptomatic atrial fibrillation: Health care utilization and outcomes