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Factors associated with hospital admission and severe outcomes for older patients with COVID-19

Kim, Jiyu; Blaum, Caroline; Ferris, Rosie; Arcila-Mesa, Mauricio; Do, Hyungrok; Pulgarin, Claudia; Dolle, Johanna; Scherer, Jennifer; Kalyanaraman Marcello, Roopa; Zhong, Judy
BACKGROUND:Morbidity and death due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experienced by older adults in nursing homes have been well described, but COVID-19's impact on community-living older adults is less studied. Similarly, the previous ambulatory care experience of such patients has rarely been considered in studies of COVID-19 risks and outcomes. METHODS:To investigate the relationship of advanced age (65+), on risk factors associated with COVID-19 outcomes in community-living elders, we identified an electronic health records cohort of older patients aged 65+ with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with and without an ambulatory care visit in the past 24 months (n = 47,219) in the New York City (NYC) academic medical institutions and the NYC public hospital system from January 2020 to February 2021. The main outcomes are COVID-19 hospitalization; severe outcomes/Intensive care unit (ICU), intubation, dialysis, stroke, in-hospital death), and in-hospital death. The exposures include demographic characteristics, and those with ambulatory records, comorbidities, frailty, and laboratory results. RESULTS:The 31,770 patients with an ambulatory history had a median age of 74 years; were 47.4% male, 24.3% non-Hispanic white, 23.3% non-Hispanic black, and 18.4% Hispanic. With increasing age, the odds ratios and attributable fractions of sex, race-ethnicity, comorbidities, and biomarkers decreased except for dementia and frailty (Hospital Frailty Risk Score). Patients without ambulatory care histories, compared to those with, had significantly higher adjusted rates of COVID-19 hospitalization and severe outcomes, with strongest effect in the oldest group. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort of community-dwelling older adults, we provided evidence of age-specific risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and severe outcomes. Future research should explore the impact of frailty and dementia in severe COVID-19 outcomes in community-living older adults, and the role of engagement in ambulatory care in mitigating severe disease.
PMID: 35179781
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5175772

Sequential Pilot Trials of Aliviado Dementia Care to Inform an Embedded Pragmatic Clinical Trial

Lin, Shih-Yin; Schneider, Catherine E; Bristol, Alycia A; Clancy, Maureen; Sprague, Sara A; Aldridge, Melissa; Cortes, Tara; Goldfeld, Keith S; Kutner, Jean S; Mitchell, Susan L; Shega, Joseph W; Wu, Bei; Zhu, Carolyn W; Brody, Abraham A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Many investigators of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (AD/ADRD) are unfamiliar with the embedded pragmatic clinical trials (ePCTs) and the indispensable pilot phase preceding ePCTs. This paper provides a much-needed example for such a pilot phase and discusses implementation barriers and additional infrastructure and implementation strategies developed in preparation for a nationwide AD/ADRD ePCT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Two pilot trials were conducted in two hospices sequentially to refine and test Aliviado Dementia Care-Hospice Edition, a complex quality improvement intervention for advanced dementia symptom management. Readiness for the subsequent full-scale ePCT was assessed by three milestones: ≥80% training completion rate ("feasibility"), ≥80% post-training survey respondents indicating intention for practice changes ("applicability"), and at least one Aliviado care plan/assessment instrument administered in ≥75% of dementia patients admitted to home hospice within one-month post training ("fidelity"). RESULTS:Participants included 72 interdisciplinary team (IDT) members and 11 patients with AD/ADRD across the pilots. Feasibility, applicability, and fidelity outcomes (92%, 93%, and 100%, respectively) all surpassed the pre-established milestones (80%, 80%, and 75%). Main implementation challenges were related to hospice staff turnover, integration of the Aliviado toolbox materials within the electronic health records, and hospices' limited research experience and infrastructure. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS/UNASSIGNED:This pilot phase demonstrated feasibility, applicability, and fidelity required to proceed to the full-scale ePCT. Our study findings and discussions of additional infrastructure and implementation strategies developed following the pilot phase can inform researchers and clinicians interested in conducting AD/ADRD-related pilot studies for ePTCs or quality improvement initiatives. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER/UNASSIGNED:NCT03681119.
PMID: 33377138
ISSN: 1758-5341
CID: 4731822

A targeted approach to using e-cigarettes for harm reduction in adults

Stevens, Elizabeth R; Sherman, Scott E
Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the US. While e-cigarettes (EC) are undeniably harmful when used by adolescents and nonsmokers, the perpetuation of the increasing negative perceptions of EC and widespread false belief that EC are equal or more harmful than combustible cigarettes (CC) represents a significant missed public health opportunity. EC have great potential to serve as a mechanism for smoking harm reduction among hard-to-treat populations of smokers who have failed to quit with currently available treatments. In this paper, we outline why we need to overcome the hostile EC research environment to explore the potential use of EC as a harm-reduction strategy in hard-to-treat populations.
PMID: 35130449
ISSN: 1097-9891
CID: 5167132

Pain, cannabis use, and physical and mental health indicators among veterans and non-veterans: results from National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III

Enkema, Matthew C; Hasin, Deborah S; Browne, Kendall C; Stohl, Malki; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Fink, David S; Olfson, Mark; Martins, Silvia S; Bohnert, Kipling M; Sherman, Scott E; Cerda, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Keyhani, Salomeh; Saxon, Andrew J
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Chronic pain is associated with mental and physical health difficulties and is prevalent among veterans. Cannabis has been put forth as a treatment for chronic pain, and changes in laws, attitudes, and use patterns have occurred over the last two decades. Differences in prevalence of non-medical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) were examined across two groups: veterans/non-veterans and those reporting/not reporting recent pain. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-2013; n=36,309) were analyzed using logistic regression. Prevalence Differences (PD) for three cannabis outcomes: (1) past-year non-medical cannabis use, (2) frequent (≥3 times a week) non-medical use, and (3) DSM-5 CUD were estimated for those reporting recent moderate-severe pain (veterans/non-veterans), and veterans reporting/not reporting recent pain. Difference in differences were calculated to investigate prevalence differences on outcomes associated with residence in a state with medical cannabis laws (MCLs). Associations between physical and mental health and cannabis variables were tested. Results indicated that the prevalence of recent pain was greater among veterans (PD=7.25%, 95% CI [4.90, 9.60]). Among veterans, the prevalence of frequent cannabis use was greater among those with pain (PD=1.92%, 98% CI [0.21, 3.63]), and, among veterans residing in a state with MCLs, the prevalence of CUD was greater among those reporting recent pain (PD=3.88%, 98% CI [0.36, 7.39]). Findings failed to support the hypothesis that cannabis use improves mental or physical health for veterans with pain. Providers treating veterans with pain in MCL states should monitor such patients closely for CUD.
PMID: 34108436
ISSN: 1872-6623
CID: 4900072

Hearing assessment-The challenges and opportunities of self report [Editorial]

Chodosh, Joshua; Blustein, Jan
PMID: 35006618
ISSN: 1532-5415
CID: 5118422

Integrating Financial Coaching and Referrals into a Smoking Cessation Program for Low-income Smokers: a Randomized Waitlist Control Trial

Rogers, Erin S; Rosen, Marc I; Elbel, Brian; Wang, Binhuan; Kyanko, Kelly; Vargas, Elizabeth; Wysota, Christina N; Sherman, Scott E
BACKGROUND:Financial distress is a barrier to cessation among low-income smokers. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate an intervention that integrated financial coaching and benefits referrals into a smoking cessation program for low-income smokers. DESIGN/METHODS:Randomized waitlist control trial conducted from 2017 to 2019. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Adult New York City residents were eligible if they reported past 30-day cigarette smoking, had income below 200% of the federal poverty level, spoke English or Spanish, and managed their own funds. Pregnant or breastfeeding people were excluded. Participants were recruited from two medical centers and from the community. INTERVENTION/METHODS:The intervention (n = 208) offered smoking cessation coaching, nicotine replacement therapy, money management coaching, and referral to financial benefits and empowerment services. The waitlist control (n=202) was usual care during a 6-month waiting period. MAIN MEASURES/METHODS:Treatment engagement, self-reported 7-day abstinence, and financial stress at 6 months. KEY RESULTS/RESULTS:At 6 months, intervention participants reported higher abstinence (17% vs. 9%, P=0.03), lower stress about finances (β, -0.8 [SE, 0.4], P=0.02), and reduced frequency of being unable to afford activities (β, -0.8 [SE, 0.4], P=0.04). Outcomes were stronger among participants recruited from the medical centers (versus from the community). Among medical center participants, the intervention was associated with higher abstinence (20% vs. 8%, P=0.01), higher satisfaction with present financial situation (β, 1.0 [SE, 0.4], P=0.01), reduced frequency of being unable to afford activities (β, -1.0 [SE, 0.5], P=0.04), reduced frequency in getting by paycheck-to-paycheck (β, -1.0 [SE, 0.4], P=0.03), and lower stress about finances in general (β, -1.0 [SE, 0.4], P = 0.02). There were no group differences in outcomes among people recruited from the community (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Among low-income smokers recruited from medical centers, the intervention produced higher abstinence rates and reductions in some markers of financial distress than usual care. The intervention was not efficacious with people recruited from the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ Identifier: NCT03187730.
PMID: 35018561
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 5118702

Perceptions of Treatment Burden Among Caregivers of Elders With Diabetes and Co-morbid Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: A Qualitative Study

Vaughan Dickson, Victoria; Melnyk, Halia; Ferris, Rosie; Leon, Alejandra; Arcila-Mesa, Mauricio; Rapozo, Crystalinda; Chodosh, Joshua; Blaum, Caroline S
Many older adults with diabetes (DM) have co-occurring Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and AD-Related Dementias (ADRD). Complex treatment plans may impose treatment burden for caregivers responsible for day-to-day self-management. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe caregiver perceptions of treatment burden for people with DM-AD/ADRD. Caregivers (n = 33) of patients with DM-AD/ADRD participated in semi-structured interviews about their caregiver role and perceptions of treatment burden of DM-AD/ADRD management. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis (ATLAS.ti). Caregivers reported high levels of burden related to complex treatment/self-management for patients with DM-AD/ADRD that varied day-to-day with the patient's cognitive status. Four themes were: (1) trajectory of treatment burden; (2) navigating multiple healthcare providers/systems of care; (3) caregiver role conflict; and (4) emotional burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver treatment burden should include activating supportive services, education, and care coordination especially, if patient treatment increases in complexity over time.
PMID: 34991360
ISSN: 1552-3799
CID: 5107342

Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among patients with COPD: protocol for an open-label two arm randomized controlled pilot trial

Stevens, Elizabeth R; Lei, Lei; Cleland, Charles M; Vojjala, Mahathi; El-Shahawy, Omar; Berger, Kenneth I; Kirchner, Thomas R; Sherman, Scott E
BACKGROUND:Smoking cessation is the most effective means of slowing the decline of lung function associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While effective smoking cessation treatments are available, they are underutilized and nearly half of people with COPD continue to smoke. By addressing both nicotine and behavioral dependence, electronic cigarettes (EC) could help people with COPD reduce the harm of combustible cigarettes (CC) through reductions in number of Cigarettes per Day (CPD) or quitting CC completely. The purpose of this pilot study is to identify barriers and facilitators to the use of and assess the preliminary effectiveness of EC as a harm reduction strategy among people with COPD. METHODS:In an open-label two-arm randomized controlled trial pilot study, 60 patients identified as smokers with a COPD diagnosis via electronic health records from a large urban health center are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either standard care [counseling + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)] or counseling + EC. The NRT arm will receive nicotine patches and nicotine lozenges for 12 weeks. The EC arm will receive EC for 12 weeks. Both cohorts will receive counseling from a licensed mental health counselor. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants will report their use of CC in both arms and EC use in the EC arm daily via text message. Primary outcomes will be feasibility and acceptability of intervention, and secondary outcomes will be reduction in CPD and change in COPD symptoms as measured by COPD Assessment Tool (CAT) score at 12-weeks. EC displacement of CC. To explore attitudes towards the use of EC as a harm-reduction strategy for patients with COPD, interviews will be performed with a sample of participants from both study arms. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite decades of availability of smoking cessation medications, nearly half of people with COPD still smoke. This study aims to address the unmet need for feasible and effective strategies for reducing CC use among those with COPD, which has the potential to significantly improve the health of people with COPD who smoke. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT04465318.
PMID: 34991693
ISSN: 1940-0640
CID: 5107362

Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Middle-aged and Older Adults With Visual Impairment in the US

Han, Benjamin H; Leddy, Jason F; Lopez, Francisco A; Palamar, Joseph J
PMID: 34762104
ISSN: 2168-6173
CID: 5050662

Geriatric Conditions Among Middle-aged and Older Adults on Methadone Maintenance Treatment: A Pilot Study

Han, Benjamin H; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Polydorou, Soteri; Sherman, Scott E; Ferris, Rosie; Arcila-Mesa, Mauricio; Qian, Yingzhi; McNeely, Jennifer
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The number of older adults on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder is increasing, but little is known about the characteristics and healthcare needs of this aging treatment population. This population may experience accelerated aging due to comorbidities and health behaviors. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of geriatric conditions among adults age ≥50 on MMT to a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS:We performed a geriatric assessment on 47 adults age ≥50 currently on MMT enrolled in 2 opioid treatment programs, in New York City and in East Providence, Rhode Island. We collected data on self-reported geriatric conditions, healthcare utilization, chronic medical conditions, physical function, and substance use. The results were compared to 470 age, sex, and race/ethnicity-matched adults in the national Health and Retirement Study. RESULTS:The mean age of the study sample was 58.8 years and 23.4% were female. The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (59.6%) and arthritis (55.3%) with 66% reporting ≥2 diseases. For geriatric conditions, adults on MMT had a significantly higher prevalence of mobility, hearing, and visual impairments as well as falls, urinary incontinence, chronic pain, and insomnia than the Health and Retirement Study sample. CONCLUSIONS:Older adults on MMT in 2 large opioid treatment programs have a high prevalence of geriatric conditions. An interdisciplinary, geriatric-based approach to care that focuses on function and addresses geriatric conditions is needed to improve the health of this growing population.
PMID: 33395146
ISSN: 1935-3227
CID: 4738592