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Mentoring Underrepresented Minority Physician-Scientists to Success

Kalet, Adina; Libby, Anne M; Jagsi, Reshma; Brady, Kathleen; Chavis-Keeling, Deborah; Pillinger, Michael H; Daumit, Gail L; Drake, Amelia F; Drake, Wonder Puryear; Fraser, Victoria; Ford, Daniel; Hochman, Judith S; Jones, Rochelle D; Mangurian, Christina; Meagher, Emma A; McGuinness, Georgeann; Regensteiner, Judith G; Rubin, Deborah C; Yaffe, Kristine; Ravenell, Joseph E
As the nation seeks to recruit and retain physician-scientists, gaps remain in understanding and addressing mitigatable challenges to the success of faculty from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds. The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists program, implemented in 2015 at 10 academic medical centers in the United States, seeks to retain physician-scientists at risk of leaving science because of periods of extraordinary family caregiving needs, hardships that URM faculty-especially those who identify as female-are more likely to experience. At the annual Fund to Retain Clinical Scientists program directors conference in 2018, program directors-21% of whom identify as URM individuals and 13% as male-addressed issues that affect URM physician-scientists in particular. Key issues that threaten the retention of URM physician-scientists were identified through focused literature reviews; institutional environmental scans; and structured small- and large-group discussions with program directors, staff, and participants. These issues include bias and discrimination, personal wealth differential, the minority tax (i.e., service burdens placed on URM faculty who represent URM perspectives on committees and at conferences), lack of mentorship training, intersectionality and isolation, concerns about confirming stereotypes, and institutional-level factors. The authors present recommendations for how to create an environment in which URM physician-scientists can expect equitable opportunities to thrive, as institutions demonstrate proactive allyship and remove structural barriers to success. Recommendations include providing universal training to reduce interpersonal bias and discrimination, addressing the consequences of the personal wealth gap through financial counseling and benefits, measuring the service faculty members provide to the institution as advocates for URM faculty issues and compensating them appropriately, supporting URM faculty who wish to engage in national leadership programs, and sustaining institutional policies that address structural and interpersonal barriers to inclusive excellence.
PMID: 34495889
ISSN: 1938-808x
CID: 5200092

A Preliminary Evaluation of Students' Learning and Performance Outcomes in an Accelerated 3-Year MD Pathway Program

Cangiarella, Joan; Eliasz, Kinga; Kalet, Adina; Cohen, Elisabeth; Abramson, Steven; Gillespie, Colleen
Background/UNASSIGNED:Little outcome data exist on 3-year MD (3YMD) programs to guide residency program directors (PDs) in deciding whether to select these graduates for their programs. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To compare performance outcomes of 3YMD and 4-year MD (4YMD) students at New York University Grossman School of Medicine. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In 2020, using the Kirkpatrick 4-level evaluation model, outcomes from 3 graduating cohorts of 3YMD students (2016-2018) were compared with the 4YMD counterparts. Results/UNASSIGNED:=.03), other metrics and overall intern ratings did not differ by pathway. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Exploratory findings from a single institution suggest that 3YMD students performed similarly to 4YMD students in medical school and the first year of residency.
PMID: 35222827
ISSN: 1949-8357
CID: 5174042

Does a measure of Medical Professional Identity Formation predict communication skills performance?

Kalet, Adina; Ark, Tavinder K; Monson, Verna; Song, Hyuksoon S; Buckvar-Keltz, Lynn; Harnik, Victoria; Yingling, Sandra; Rivera, Rafael; Tewksbury, Linda; Lusk, Penelope; Crowe, Ruth
OBJECTIVE:To validate an approach to measuring professional identity formation (PIF), we explore if the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a stage score measure of medical professional identity (PI), predicts clinical communication skills. METHODS:Students completed the PIE during medical school orientation and a 3-case Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) where standardized patients reliably assessed communication skills in 5 domains. Using mediation analyses, relationships between PIE stage scores and communication skills were explored. RESULTS:For the 351 (89%) consenting students, controlling for individual characteristics, there were increases in patient counseling (6.5%, p<0.01), information gathering (4.3%, p = 0.01), organization and management (4.1%, p = 0.02), patient assessment (3.6%, p = 0.04), and relationship development (3.5%, p = 0.03) skills for every half stage increase in PIE score. The communication skills of lower socio-economic status (SES) students are indirectly impacted by their slightly higher PIE stage scores. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Higher PIE stage scores are associated with higher communication skills and lower SES. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:PIE predicts critical clinical skills and identifies how SES and other characteristics indirectly impact future clinical performance, providing validity evidence for using PIE as a tool in longitudinal formative academic coaching, program and curriculum evaluation, and research.
PMID: 33896685
ISSN: 1873-5134
CID: 4889222

In Search of Medical Professionalism Research: Preliminary Results from a Review of Widely Read Medical Journals

Isaacson, J Harry; Ziring, Deborah; Hafferty, Fred; Kalet, Adina; Littleton, Dawn; Frankel, Richard M
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Professionalism is a core concept in medicine. The extent to which knowledge about professionalism is anchored in empirical research is unknown. Understanding the current state of research is necessary to identify significant gaps and create a road map for future professionalism efforts. The authors conducted an exploratory literature review to characterize professionalism research published in widely read medical journals, identify knowledge gaps, and describe the sources of funding for the identified studies. METHODS:The authors focused on Medline's Abridged Index Medicus and 4 core Medline education-oriented journal and developed a search filter using text words found in the article title or abstract addressing professionalism. Articles were further filtered to include those indicating a research focus. RESULTS:The search strategy resulted in 461 professionalism research articles for analysis. Articles were divided into themes of education (n = 212, 45.9%), performance (n = 83, 18%), measurement development (n = 13, 2.8%), remediation (n = 53, 11.5%), and well-being (n = 100, 21.6%). There were 36 studies from 1980 to 2002 (Era 1: before publication of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies) and 425 from 2003 to 17 (Era 2: after Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education publication of competencies). Professionalism education was the most common topic area, and most studies were from single institutions with results based on convenience samples. Most studies received no funding or were funded by the authors' own institution. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Little empirical research is available on professionalism in widely read medical journals. There has been limited external research funding available to study this topic. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:More investment in high quality professionalism research is justified and should be encouraged.
PMID: 35348058
ISSN: 1552-5775
CID: 5201002

Communication skills over time for eight medical school cohorts: Exploration of selection, curriculum, and measurement effects [Meeting Abstract]

Gillespie, C; Ark, T; Crowe, R; Altshuler, L; Wilhite, J; Hardowar, K; Tewksbury, L; Hanley, K; Zabar, S; Kalet, A
BACKGROUND: NYU uses the same 14-item checklist for assessing medical student communication skills across our curriculum, which includes highquality Objective Structured Clinical Skills Exams throughout the first three years of medical school: a 3-station Introductory Clinical Experience OSCE (ICE), a 3-station end-of-clinical skills OSCE (Practice of Medicine; POM); and an 8-station, high- stakes OSCE (Comprehensive Clinical Skills Exam; CCSE) after core clerkship. We describe how skills change throughout school and explore how patterns vary by cohort (class) in ways that could be explained by admissions criteria, measurement quality, and/or curriculum changes.
METHOD(S): Three domains are assessed: Info gathering (6 items), relationship development (5 items); and patient education & counseling (3 items). Checklist items use a 3-point scale (not done, partly, well done) with behavioral anchors. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) exceeds .75 for all subdomains and across all years. Domains are supported by Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Mean average % well done was calculated across cases and individuals for each subdomain in an OSCE and compared over the OSCEs and between 8 classes of medical school students entering from 2009 to 2016 (graduating 2013 to 2020) (n=1569).
RESULT(S): Cohorts showed similar patterns communication skills trajectories - improvement over time. Despite changes in admissions criteria and processes, cohorts did not differ in terms of demographics, undergraduate GPA, or MCAT scores. Variability in scores decreased in all cohorts over time while communication improved. Patient education & counseling was significantly and substantially lower than other domains. In terms of cohort effects, communication scores for the entering class of 2013 at the start of medical school (ICE OSCE) were significantly higher than the previous 4. At the end of MS2, scores were similar for cohorts for info gathering and relationship development domains (and high, mean range=77-87% well done) but patient education & counseling varied: Improvement from the 1st to 3rd cohort and then decline for the last 5 cohorts. Within the CCSE (8-station pass/fail, MS3), communication scores increased steadily across entering classes, especially from cohort 4 on. These changes over time and between cohorts were mapped onto a priori descriptions of curricular, measurement and admission changes.
CONCLUSION(S): Our cohort data showed interesting and complex patterns. This study reinforces some limitations of linking curriculum to performance (e.g., no direct measures of the curriculum in terms of content, process and intensity over time, limited data on what makes cohorts different, variable measurement over time, and being unable to control for broader trends likely to influence both cohort and time effects) while also demonstrating the promise of longitudinal perspectives on the development of core competencies. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Understand cohort performance in relation to curricular trends. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Describe variation in performance
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4984942

Exploring the professional identity of exemplars of medical professionalism [Meeting Abstract]

Altshuler, L; Monson, V; Chen, D T; Lusk, P; Bukvar-Keltz, L; Crowe, R; Tewksbury, L; Poag, M; Harnik, V; Belluomini, P; Kalet, A
BACKGROUND: A core responsibility of medical educators is to foster a strong sense of medical professional identity (PI). Few studies specifically examine the qualities that constitute the PI of physicians recognized for exemplary professionalism. We describe those qualities based on an assessment of PI to inform educational efforts and support learners' development of PI.
METHOD(S): We used Colby and Damon's criteria for selection of moral exemplars (1992) to invite nominations of exemplary faculty physicians at NYUGSOM from faculty and trainees. Participants completed the Professional Identity Essay (PIE), a 9-question reflective writing measure based on a wellknown model of adult development that explores meaning making on PI (Bebeau & Lewis, 2004; Kegan, 1982, 1994). Two raters with extensive training and experience in adult developmental theory rated PIE responses for stage or transition phase. PI stages include independent operator, teamoriented idealist, self-defining, and self-transforming. These stages reflect increasing complexity and internalization of PI. We also gathered information on specialty, years in practice, gender, and race/ethnicity.
RESULT(S): Two hundred and twelve faculty were nominated; 35 were invited to participate (based on number of nominations, diversity of ages, backgrounds and career stage), and 21 completed scorable PIEs. They were from 13 specialties; mean career length was 21.5 years (range 6-45), and 35% were female. All but 2 were Caucasian. PIE scores ranged from 3 to 4.5 (Table 1), demonstrating differing and increasingly complex and internalized ways faculty understand their PI, and that not all nominated exemplars share a singular view of professionalism.
CONCLUSION(S): Physicians nominated as exemplars of professionalism embody a range of professional identities and professionalism world-views. Our study provides rich descriptions of multiple pathways to strengthening a physician's professionalidentities, of critical importance to faculty and physician development in a milieu of challenges to recruitment and retention of physicians. This approach can also inform educators' efforts to support PI development in learners and support the development of learning communities that foster a growth mindset. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Recognize importance of strong role models for MPI. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Describe the varying levels of MPI in a cohort of exemplar physicians
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4984982

Validation of the comprehensive clinical skills exam (CCSE) measurement model [Meeting Abstract]

Ark, T; Gillespie, C; Hardowar, K; Mari, A; Wilhite, J; Crowe, R; Kalet, A; Altshuler, L; Zabar, S
BACKGROUND: Performance-based assessment & feedback during medical training is essential for a successful transition before moving onto residency and independent clinical practice. Learners at New York University's School of Medicine (NYUSOM) participate in a routine comprehensive clinical skills examination (CCSE) that takes place at the tail end of medical school. During this exam, learners interact with standardized patients (SPs) and are rated on specific skills using a standardized checklist, measuring important clinical skills domains. NYUSOM has utilized the same assessment tool since 2005. To date, there is limited evidence on the tool's validity and ability to differentiate among students. We sought to provide evidence for it's reliability, validity, and generalizability.
METHOD(S): 1157 learners participated in the CCSE from 2011-2019 and were included in the analysis. Communication domain items assessed included patient education (3 items), relationship development (4 items), information gathering (6 items) and organization/ time management (3 items). Items were scored using a 3-point behaviorally-anchored scale (not, partly, or well done). In order to determine the degree to which the data mapped onto our theoretically-informed communication domains, we conducted a four-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) allowing for factors to correlate (oblique rotation) and using means and variance adjusted weighted-least squares estimation (WLSMV) in order to account for the ordered categorical nature of the communication items. Model fit was assessed using root mean square of approximation (RMSEA) < 0.08, comparative fit index (CFI) > 0.95, and standardized root mean square error (SRMR) <0.08.
RESULT(S): The model fit the data using RMSEA (0.04), CFI (0.98), and SRMR (0.05). All factors were significantly correlated with one another (p < 0.05), with the largest correlation between patient education and organization/ time management (0.86), and information gathering (0.77). The smallest correlation was between organization/ time management and information gathering (0.66). All items (factor loadings) significantly loaded on the factors they measured. Only one item had an insignificant threshold loading between partly and well done, suggesting this part of the response scale may be hard for SPs to differentiate between students with varying ability on this item. Each factor had at least one item that had a factor loading less than 0.7.
CONCLUSION(S): The analysis suggests each item on the communication checklist significantly measures domains they were designed to measure, and that items can be summated to compute overall scores. Domains had one item with a lower loading than the rest, suggesting these items may be measuring something different. Follow up measurement modeling and profile analysis is the next logical step in determining if there is an important sub-domain that identifies a student group operating differentially. LEARNING OBJECTIVE #1: Understand clinical communication LEARNING OBJECTIVE #2: Describe communication measures
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4986652

From Stigma to Validation: A Qualitative Assessment of a Novel National Program to Improve Retention of Physician-Scientists with Caregiving Responsibilities

Jones, Rochelle D; Miller, Jacquelyn; Vitous, C Ann; Krenz, Chris; Brady, Kathleen T; Brown, Ann J; Daumit, Gail L; Drake, Amelia F; Fraser, Victoria J; Hartmann, Katherine E; Hochman, Judith S; Girdler, Susan; Kalet, Adina L; Libby, Anne M; Mangurian, Christina; Regensteiner, Judith G; Yonkers, Kimberly; Jagsi, Reshma
PMID: 32286931
ISSN: 1931-843x
CID: 4383322

The Challenges, Joys, and Career Satisfaction of Women Graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program 1973-2011

Kalet, Adina; Lusk, Penelope; Rockfeld, Jennifer; Schwartz, Kate; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Deng, Rebecca; Bickell, Nina A
BACKGROUND:To ensure a next generation of female leaders in academia, we need to understand challenges they face and factors that enable fellowship-prepared women to thrive. We surveyed woman graduates of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (CSP) from 1976 to 2011 regarding their experiences, insights, and advice to women entering the field. METHODS:We surveyed every CSP woman graduate through 2012 (n = 360) by email and post. The survey, 12 prompts requiring open text responses, explored current work situation, personal definitions of success, job negotiations, career regrets, feelings about work, and advice for others. Four independent reviewers read overlapping subsets of the de-identified data, iteratively created coding categories, and defined and refined emergent themes. RESULTS:Of the 360 cohort, 108 (30%) responded. The mean age of respondents was 45 (range 32 to 65), 85% are partnered, and 87% have children (average number of children 2.15, range 1 to 5). We identified 11 major code categories and conducted a thematic analysis. Factors common to very satisfied respondents include personally meaningful work, schedule flexibility, spousal support, and collaborative team research. Managing professional-personal balance depended on career stage, clinical specialty, and children's age. Unique to women who completed the CSP prior to 1995 were descriptions of "atypical" paths with career transitions motivated by discord between work and personal ambitions and the emphasis on the importance of maintaining relevance and remaining open to opportunities in later life. CONCLUSIONS:Women CSP graduates who stayed in academic medicine are proud to have pursued meaningful work despite challenges and uncertain futures. They thrived by remaining flexible and managing change while remaining true to their values. We likely captured the voices of long-term survivors in academic medicine. Although transferability of these findings is uncertain, these voices add to the national discussion about retaining clinical researchers and keeping women academics productive and engaged.
PMID: 32096079
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4323272

Use of unannounced standardized patients and audit/feedback to improve physician response to social determinants of health [Meeting Abstract]

Zabar, S R; Wilhite, J; Hanley, K; Altshuler, L; Fisher, H; Kalet, A; Hardowar, K; Mari, A; Porter, B; Wallach, A; Gillespie, C
BACKGROUND: While much is known about the importance of addressing Social Determinants of Health (SDoH), less is known about how physicians elicit, respond to, and act upon their patients' SDoH information. We report on the results of a study that 1) sent Unannounced Standardized Patients (USPs) with programmed SDoH into clinics to assess whether providers uncovered, explored and acted upon the SDoH, 2) provided audit/feedback reports with educational components to clinical teams, and 3) tracked the impact of that intervention on provider response to SDoH.
METHOD(S): Highly trained USPs (secret shoppers) portrayed six scenarios (fatigue, asthma, Hepatitis B concern, shoulder pain, back pain, well-visit), each with specific housing (overcrowding, late rent, and mold) and social isolation (shyness, recent break up, and anxiety) concerns that they shared if asked broadly about. USPs assessed team and provider SDoH practices (eliciting, acknowledging/exploring, and providing resources and/or referrals). 383 USP visits were made to residents in 5 primary care teams in 2 urban, safety- net clinics. 123 visits were fielded during baseline period (Feb 2017-Jan 2018); 185 visits during intervention period (Jan 2018-Mar 2019) throughout which quarterly audit/feedback reports of the teams' response to the USPs' SDoH and targeted education on SDoH were distributed; and 75 follow-up phase visits were fielded (Apr-Dec 2019). Analyses compared rates of eliciting and responding to SDoH across the 3 periods (chi- square, z-scores). One team, by design, did not receive the intervention and serves as a comparison group.
RESULT(S): Among the intervention teams, the rate of eliciting the housing SDoH increased from 46% at baseline to 59% during the intervention period (p=.045) and also increased, but not significantly, for the social issue (40% to 52%, p=.077). There was a significant increase from baseline to intervention in providing resources/referrals for housing (from 7% to 24%, p=.001) and for social isolation (from 13% to 24%, p=.042) (mostly resources, very few referrals were made). The comparison team's rates followed a different pattern: eliciting the housing issue and the social isolation issue decreased from baseline to the intervention period (housing: 61% to 45%; social isolation: 39% to 33% of visits) and the rate of providing resources/referrals stayed steady at 13% for both. In the cases where SDoH were most clinically relevant, baseline rates of identifying the SDoH were high (>70%) but rates of acting on the SDoH increased significantly from baseline to intervention. Increases seen in the intervention period were not sustained in the follow-up period.
CONCLUSION(S): Giving providers SDoH data along with targeted education was associated with increased but unsustained rates of eliciting and responding to housing and social issues. The USP methodology was an effective means of presenting controlled SDoH and providing audit/feedback data. Ongoing education and feedback may be needed
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4803142