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World Trade Center Exposure, DNA Methylation Changes, and Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

Tuminello, Stephanie; Nguyen, Emelie; Durmus, Nedim; Alptekin, Ramazan; Yilmaz, Muhammed; Crisanti, Maria Cecilia; Snuderl, Matija; Chen, Yu; Shao, Yongzhao; Reibman, Joan; Taioli, Emanuela; Arslan, Alan A
PMID: 38131903
ISSN: 2075-4655
CID: 5612212

World Trade Center Exposure, DNA Methylation Changes, and Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

Tuminello, Stephanie; Nguyen, Emelie; Durmus, Nedim; Alptekin, Ramazan; Yilmaz, Muhammed; Crisanti, Maria Cecilia; Snuderl, Matija; Chen, Yu; Shao, Yongzhao; Reibman, Joan; Taioli, Emanuela; Arslan, Alan A.
Introduction: Known carcinogens in the dust and fumes from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 9 November 2001 included metals, asbestos, and organic pollutants, which have been shown to modify epigenetic status. Epigenome-wide association analyses (EWAS) using uniform (Illumina) methodology have identified novel epigenetic profiles of WTC exposure. Methods: We reviewed all published data, comparing differentially methylated gene profiles identified in the prior EWAS studies of WTC exposure. This included DNA methylation changes in blood-derived DNA from cases of cancer-free "Survivors" and those with breast cancer, as well as tissue-derived DNA from "Responders" with prostate cancer. Emerging molecular pathways related to the observed DNA methylation changes in WTC-exposed groups were explored and summarized. Results: WTC dust exposure appears to be associated with DNA methylation changes across the genome. Notably, WTC dust exposure appears to be associated with increased global DNA methylation; direct dysregulation of cancer genes and pathways, including inflammation and immune system dysregulation; and endocrine system disruption, as well as disruption of cholesterol homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Conclusion: WTC dust exposure appears to be associated with biologically meaningful DNA methylation changes, with implications for carcinogenesis and development of other chronic diseases.
ISSN: 2075-4655
CID: 5630532

Lung cancer risk discrimination of prediagnostic proteomics measurements compared with existing prediction tools

Feng, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying; Onwuka, Justina Ucheojor; Haider, Zahra; Alcala, Karine; Smith-Byrne, Karl; Zahed, Hana; Guida, Florence; Wang, Renwei; Bassett, Julie K; Stevens, Victoria; Wang, Ying; Weinstein, Stephanie; Freedman, Neal D; Chen, Chu; Tinker, Lesley; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Koh, Woon-Puay; Muller, David; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra M; Tumino, Rosario; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Christopher I; Lin, Xihong; Zhang, Xuehong; Arslan, Alan A; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Sørgjerd, Elin Pettersen; Severi, Gianluca; Hveem, Kristian; Brennan, Paul; Langhammer, Arnulf; Milne, Roger L; Yuan, Jian-Min; Melin, Beatrice; Johansson, Mikael; Robbins, Hilary A; Johansson, Mattias
BACKGROUND:We sought to develop a proteomics-based risk model for lung cancer and evaluate its risk-discriminatory performance in comparison with a smoking-based risk model (PLCOm2012) and a commercially available autoantibody biomarker test. METHODS:We designed a case-control study nested in 6 prospective cohorts, including 624 lung cancer participants who donated blood samples at most 3 years prior to lung cancer diagnosis and 624 smoking-matched cancer free participants who were assayed for 302 proteins. We used 470 case-control pairs from 4 cohorts to select proteins and train a protein-based risk model. We subsequently used 154 case-control pairs from 2 cohorts to compare the risk-discriminatory performance of the protein-based model with that of the Early Cancer Detection Test (EarlyCDT)-Lung and the PLCOm2012 model using receiver operating characteristics analysis and by estimating models' sensitivity. All tests were 2-sided. RESULTS:The area under the curve for the protein-based risk model in the validation sample was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.81) compared with 0.64 (95% CI = 0.57 to 0.70) for the PLCOm2012 model (Pdifference = .001). The EarlyCDT-Lung had a sensitivity of 14% (95% CI = 8.2% to 19%) and a specificity of 86% (95% CI = 81% to 92%) for incident lung cancer. At the same specificity of 86%, the sensitivity for the protein-based risk model was estimated at 49% (95% CI = 41% to 57%) and 30% (95% CI = 23% to 37%) for the PLCOm2012 model. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Circulating proteins showed promise in predicting incident lung cancer and outperformed a standard risk prediction model and the commercialized EarlyCDT-Lung.
PMID: 37260165
ISSN: 1460-2105
CID: 5543362

Genetic susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk for pancreatic cancer: Mendelian randomization

King, Sontoria D; Veliginti, Swathi; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Ren, Zhewen; Zheng, Wei; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Arslan, Alan A; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bracci, Paige M; Canzian, Federico; Du, Mengmeng; Gallinger, Steven J; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Haiman, Christopher A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kooperberg, Charles; Le Marchand, Loic; Neale, Rachel E; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Babic, Ana; Berndt, Sonja I; Brais, Lauren K; Brennan, Paul; Buring, Julie E; Rabe, Kari G; Bamlet, William R; Chanock, Stephen J; Fuchs, Charles S; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L; Hackert, Thilo; Hassan, Manal M; Katzke, Verena; Kurtz, Robert C; Lee, I-Min; Malats, Nuria; Murphy, Neil; Oberg, Ann L; Orlow, Irene; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X; Rothman, Nathaniel; Sesso, Howard D; Silverman, Debra T; Thompson, Ian M; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Yu, Kai; Wolpin, Brian M; Duell, Eric J; Li, Donghui; Hung, Rayjean J; Perdomo, Sandra; McCullough, Marjorie L; Freedman, Neal D; Patel, Alpa V; Peters, Ulrike; Riboli, Elio; Sund, Malin; Tjønneland, Anne; Zhong, Jun; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Kraft, Peter; Risch, Harvey A; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Klein, Alison P; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Antwi, Samuel O
BACKGROUND:There are conflicting data on whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer (PC). Using Mendelian randomization (MR), we investigated the relationship between genetic predisposition to NAFLD and risk for PC. METHODS:Data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan; cases n=5090, controls n=8733) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium (PanC4; cases n=4,163, controls n=3,792) were analyzed. We used data on 68 genetic variants with four different MR methods (inverse variance weighting [IVW], MR-Egger, simple median, and penalized weighted median) separately to predict genetic heritability of NAFLD. We then assessed the relationship between each of the four MR methods and PC risk, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for PC risk factors, including obesity and diabetes. RESULTS:No association was found between genetically predicted NAFLD and PC risk in the PanScan or PanC4 samples (e.g., PanScan, IVW OR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.88-1.22, MR-Egger OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.65-1.21; PanC4, IVW OR=1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.27, MR-Egger OR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.67-1.28). None of the four MR methods indicated an association between genetically predicted NAFLD and PC risk in either sample. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic predisposition to NAFLD is not associated with PC risk. IMPACT/CONCLUSIONS:Given the close relationship between NAFLD and metabolic conditions, it is plausible that any association between NAFLD and PC might reflect host metabolic perturbations (e.g., obesity, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome) and does not necessarily reflect a causal relationship between NAFLD and PC.
PMID: 37351909
ISSN: 1538-7755
CID: 5542972

Genetically inferred birthweight, height, and puberty timing and risk of osteosarcoma

Gianferante, D Matthew; Moore, Amy; Spector, Logan G; Wheeler, William; Yang, Tianzhong; Hubbard, Aubrey; Gorlick, Richard; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Amary, Fernanda; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; Thomas, David M; Ballinger, Mandy L; Serra, Massimo; Hattinger, Claudia; Demerath, Ellen; Johnson, Will; Birmann, Brenda M; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giles, Graham; Teras, Lauren R; Arslan, Alan; Vermeulen, Roel; Sample, Jeannette; Freedman, Neal D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chanock, Stephen J; Savage, Sharon A; Berndt, Sonja I; Mirabello, Lisa
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Several studies have linked increased risk of osteosarcoma with tall stature, high birthweight, and early puberty, although evidence is inconsistent. We used genetic risk scores (GRS) based on established genetic loci for these traits and evaluated associations between genetically inferred birthweight, height, and puberty timing with osteosarcoma. METHODS:Using genotype data from two genome-wide association studies, totaling 1039 cases and 2923 controls of European ancestry, association analyses were conducted using logistic regression for each study and meta-analyzed to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were conducted by case diagnosis age, metastasis status, tumor location, tumor histology, and presence of a known pathogenic variant in a cancer susceptibility gene. RESULTS:). Although there was no overall association between osteosarcoma and genetically inferred taller stature (OR=1.06, 95% CI 0.96-1.17, P = 0.28), the GRS for taller stature was associated with an increased risk of osteosarcoma in 154 cases with a known pathogenic cancer susceptibility gene variant (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.63, P = 0.03). There were no significant associations between the GRS for puberty timing and osteosarcoma. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A genetic propensity to higher birthweight was associated with increased osteosarcoma risk, suggesting that shared genetic factors or biological pathways that affect birthweight may contribute to osteosarcoma pathogenesis.
PMID: 37596165
ISSN: 1877-783x
CID: 5619212

A cross-sectional study of inflammatory markers as determinants of circulating kynurenines in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium

Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Meyer, Klaus; Zahed, Hana; Giles, Graham G; Manjer, Jonas; Sandsveden, Malte; Langhammer, Arnulf; Sørgjerd, Elin Pettersen; Behndig, Annelie F; Johansson, Mikael; Freedman, Neal D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Chu; Prentice, Ross; Stevens, Victoria L; Wang, Ying; Le Marchand, Loïc; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Cai, Qiuyin; Arslan, Alan A; Chen, Yu; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Visvanathan, Kala; Sesso, Howard D; Zhang, Xuehong; Gaziano, J Michael; Fanidi, Anouar; Robbins, Hilary A; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per M
Circulating concentrations of metabolites (collectively called kynurenines) in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism increase during inflammation, particularly in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Neopterin and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) are IFN-γ induced inflammatory markers, and together with C-reactive protein (CRP) and kynurenines they are associated with various diseases, but comprehensive data on the strength of associations of inflammatory markers with circulating concentrations of kynurenines are lacking. We measured circulating concentrations of neopterin, CRP, tryptophan and seven kynurenines in 5314 controls from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). The associations of neopterin, KTR and CRP with kynurenines were investigated using regression models. In mixed models, one standard deviation (SD) higher KTR was associated with a 0.46 SD higher quinolinic acid (QA), and 0.31 SD higher 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK). One SD higher neopterin was associated with 0.48, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.28 SD higher KTR, QA, kynurenine and HK, respectively. KTR and neopterin respectively explained 24.1% and 16.7% of the variation in QA, and 11.4% and 7.5% of HK. CRP was only weakly associated with kynurenines in regression models. In summary, QA was the metabolite that was most strongly associated with the inflammatory markers. In general, the inflammatory markers were most strongly related to metabolites located along the tryptophan-NAD axis, which may support suggestions of increased production of NAD from tryptophan during inflammation.
PMID: 36653422
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5410762

Characteristics of Cancers in Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster at a Young Age

Florsheim, Rebecca Lynn; Zhang, Qiao; Durmus, Nedim; Zhang, Yian; Pehlivan, Sultan; Arslan, Alan A; Shao, Yongzhao; Reibman, Joan
The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 11 September 2001 (9/11) released tons of dust and smoke into the atmosphere, exposing hundreds of thousands of community members (survivors) and responders to carcinogens. The WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) is a federally designated surveillance and treatment program for community members who were present in the New York City disaster area on 9/11 or during the months that followed. WTC EHC enrollment requires exposure to the WTC dust and fumes and a federally certifiable medical condition, which includes most solid and blood cancers. Several studies have described the prevalence and characteristics of cancers in responders and survivors exposed to the WTC dust and fumes as adults. Cancers in those exposed at a young age warrant specific investigation since environmental toxin exposure at a younger age may change cancer risk. We describe the characteristics of 269 cancer patients with 278 cancer diagnoses among WTC EHC enrollees who were young in age (aged 0 to 30) on 9/11. These include 215 patients with a solid tumor (79.9%) and 54 with a lymphoid and/or hematopoietic cancer (20.1%). Among them, 9 patients had a known second primary cancer. A total of 23 different types of cancer were identified, including cancer types rare for this age group. Many were diagnosed in individuals lacking traditional cancer-specific risk factors such as tobacco use. The current study is the first to report specifically on cancer characteristics of younger enrollees in the WTC EHC program.
PMID: 36429881
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 5364632

Design and methodological considerations for biomarker discovery and validation in the Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) Program

Robbins, Hilary A; Alcala, Karine; Moez, Elham Khodayari; Guida, Florence; Thomas, Sera; Zahed, Hana; Warkentin, Matthew T; Smith-Byrne, Karl; Brhane, Yonathan; Muller, David; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C; Arslan, Alan A; Bassett, Julie; Berg, Christine D; Cai, Qiuyin; Chen, Chu; Davies, Michael P A; Diergaarde, Brenda; Field, John K; Freedman, Neal D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Johansson, Mikael; Jones, Michael; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lam, Stephen; Lan, Qing; Langhammer, Arnulf; Liao, Linda M; Liu, Geoffrey; Malekzadeh, Reza; Milne, Roger L; Montuenga, Luis M; Rohan, Thomas; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Sheikh, Mahdi; Sinha, Rashmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Tammemägi, Martin C; Tinker, Lesley F; Visvanathan, Kala; Wang, Ying; Wang, Renwei; Weinstein, Stephanie J; White, Emily; Wilson, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhang, Xuehong; Zheng, Wei; Amos, Christopher I; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Hung, Rayjean J
The Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) program is an NCI-funded initiative with an objective to develop tools to optimize low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening. Here, we describe the rationale and design for the Risk Biomarker and Nodule Malignancy projects within INTEGRAL. The overarching goal of these projects is to systematically investigate circulating protein markers to include on a panel for use (i) pre-LDCT, to identify people likely to benefit from screening, and (ii) post-LDCT, to differentiate benign versus malignant nodules. To identify informative proteins, the Risk Biomarker project measured 1161 proteins in a nested-case control study within 2 prospective cohorts (n = 252 lung cancer cases and 252 controls) and replicated associations for a subset of proteins in 4 cohorts (n = 479 cases and 479 controls). Eligible participants had a current or former history of smoking and cases were diagnosed up to 3 years following blood draw. The Nodule Malignancy project measured 1078 proteins among participants with a heavy smoking history within four LDCT screening studies (n = 425 cases diagnosed up to 5 years following blood draw, 430 benign-nodule controls, and 398 nodule-free controls). The INTEGRAL panel will enable absolute quantification of 21 proteins. We will evaluate its performance in the Risk Biomarker project using a case-cohort study including 14 cohorts (n = 1696 cases and 2926 subcohort representatives), and in the Nodule Malignancy project within five LDCT screening studies (n = 675 cases, 680 benign-nodule controls, and 648 nodule-free controls). Future progress to advance lung cancer early detection biomarkers will require carefully designed validation, translational, and comparative studies.
PMID: 36404465
ISSN: 1873-2585
CID: 5374462

Neighborhood walkability and sex steroid hormone levels in women

India-Aldana, Sandra; Rundle, Andrew G; Clendenen, Tess V; Quinn, James W; Arslan, Alan A; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Koenig, Karen L; Liu, Mengling; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Thorpe, Lorna E; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Chen, Yu
BACKGROUND:Neighborhood walkability (NW) has been linked to increased physical activity, which in turn is associated with lower concentrations of sex hormones and higher concentration of SHBG in women. However, no study has directly examined the association of NW with female sex hormone levels. OBJECTIVE:We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between NW and circulating levels of sex hormones and SHBG in pre- and post-menopausal women. METHODS:We included 797 premenopausal and 618 postmenopausal women from the New York University Women's Health Study (NYUWHS) who were healthy controls in previous nested case-control studies in which sex hormones (androstenedione, testosterone, DHEAS, estradiol and estrone) and SHBG had been measured in serum at enrollment. Baseline residential addresses were geo-coded and the Built Environment and Health Neighborhood Walkability Index (BEH-NWI) was calculated. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to assess the association between BEH-NWI and sex hormone and SHBG concentrations adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level factors. RESULTS:In premenopausal women, a one standard deviation (SD) increment in BEH-NWI was associated with a 3.5% (95% CI 0.9%-6.1%) lower DHEAS concentration. In postmenopausal women, a one SD increment in BEH-NWI was related to an 8.5% (95% CI 5.4%-11.5%) lower level of DHEAS, a 3.7% (95% CI 0.5%-6.8%) lower level of testosterone, a 1.8% (95% CI 0.5%-3.0%) lower level of estrone, and a 4.2% (95% CI 2.7%-5.7%) higher level of SHBG. However, the associations with respect to DHEAS and estrone became apparent only after adjusting for neighborhood-level variables. Sensitivity analyses using fixed effects meta-analysis and inverse probability weighting accounting for potential selection bias yielded similar results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that NW is associated with lower concentrations of androgens and estrone, and increased SHBG, in postmenopausal women, and lower levels of DHEAS in premenopausal women.
PMID: 36088991
ISSN: 1096-0953
CID: 5332702

Characteristics of Women with Lung Adenocarcinoma in the World Trade Center Environmental Health Center

Shum, Elaine; Durmus, Nedim; Pehlivan, Sultan; Lu, Yuting; Zhang, Yian; Arslan, Alan A; Shao, Yongzhao; Reibman, Joan
The destruction of the World Trade Center towers on 11 September 2001 exposed local residents, workers, and individuals in the area (Survivors) to dust and fumes that included known and suspected carcinogens. Given the potential for inhalation of toxic substances and the long latency after exposure, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to increase in WTC-exposed individuals. We describe the characteristics of women WTC Survivors with lung adenocarcinoma who were enrolled in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) between May 2002 and July 2021. A total of 173 women in WTC EHC had a diagnosis of any type of lung cancer, representing 10% of all cancers in women. Most of the lung cancers (87%) were non-small cell carcinomas, with adenocarcinoma (77%) being the most common subtype. Nearly half (46%) of these patients were exposed to dust clouds on 11 September 2001. Race and ethnicity varied by smoking status, as follows: 44% of Asian women compared with 29% of non-Hispanic White women were never-smokers (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the pathologic characteristics of adenocarcinomas between never and ever smokers. We also summarize EGFR, ALK, KRAS, ROS-1 and BRAF mutation status stratified by smoking, race and ethnicity. The identification of a relatively high proportion of women never-smokers with lung cancer warrants further investigation into the role of WTC dust exposure.
PMID: 35805276
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 5278432