Haemophilus influenzae serotype f endocarditis and septic arthritis
Haemophilus influenzae represents gram-negative coccobacilli which can cause endocarditis, meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis. H.influenzae exists as encapsulated and unencapsulated (non-typeable) strains. Non-typeable H.influenzae are emerging pathogens especially in elderly population. We report a case of a 73 year old woman with bacteremia, endocarditis and septic arthritis due to H.influenzae serotype f. This case emphasizes the clinical features and the key elements of diagnosis and management of infections caused by non-typeable strains of H.influenzae.
Feasibility of referral of patients with elevated blood pressure from the Emergency Department
Recent studies suggest that patients' elevated blood pressure (BP) readings in the Emergency Department (ED) may be due to hypertension (HTN) rather than pain and anxiety. Identifying BP patterns suggestive of HTN in the ED presents an opportunity for referral. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess the feasibility of referral of ED patients with elevated BP readings suggestive of HTN. Adults with elevated BP suggestive of HTN and no history of HTN were tracked as to referral status using an actively monitored ED referral system. Patients referred to a community clinic network were tracked regarding clinic visits, subsequent BP, and diagnosis of HTN. Of 662 patients with elevated BP in the ED at triage, 197 (29.8%) had a pattern of blood pressure readings that were suggestive of HTN. Of these, 63 (32.0%) were referred to in-network clinics, 5 (2.5%) were referred out of network, and 129 (65.5%) were not referred. Of the 63 referred to network clinics, 17 (27.0%) kept their appointments and of those, 5 (29.4%) were diagnosed with HTN. Elevated BP was not mentioned in any ED physician referral notes as a reason for referral and the number of appointments kept among patients who were referred was low. Referral to outpatient clinics based on BP levels suggestive of HTN may not be feasible despite active referral systems.