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Multicenter, prospective, phase II study of maintenance bevacizumab for children and adults with NF2-related schwannomatosis and progressive vestibular schwannoma

Plotkin, Scott R; Allen, Jeffrey; Dhall, Girish; Campian, Jian L; Clapp, D Wade; Fisher, Michael J; Jain, Rakesh K; Tonsgard, James; Ullrich, Nicole J; Thomas, Coretta; Edwards, Lloyd J; Korf, Bruce; Packer, Roger; Karajannis, Matthias A; Blakeley, Jaishri O
BACKGROUND:Prospective data on maintenance therapy with bevacizumab for persons with NF2-related schwannomatosis (NF2-SWN) is lacking. In this prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bevacizumab for maintenance therapy in children and adults with NF2-SWN and hearing loss due to vestibular schwannomas (VS). METHODS:Following induction therapy, participants received bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 18 months. Participants were monitored for changes in hearing, tumor size, and quality of life (QOL), and for adverse events. Hearing loss was defined as a statistically significant decline in word recognition score (WRS) or pure-tone average compared to the study baseline; tumor growth was defined as >20% increase in volume compared to baseline. RESULTS:Twenty participants with NF2-SWN (median age 23.5 years; range, 12.5-62.5 years) with hearing loss in the target ear (median WRS 70%, range 2%-94%) received maintenance bevacizumab. Freedom from hearing loss in the target ear was 95% after 48 weeks, 89% after 72 weeks, and 70% after 98 weeks. Freedom from tumor growth in the target VS was 94% after 48 weeks, 89% after 72 weeks, and 89% after 98 weeks. NF2-related QOL remained stable for 98 weeks whereas tinnitus-related distress decreased. Maintenance bevacizumab was well tolerated, with 3 participants (15%) discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Maintenance bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 3 weeks) is associated with high rates of hearing and tumor stability during 18 months of follow-up. No new unexpected adverse events related to bevacizumab were identified in this population.
PMID: 37010875
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5559722

Clinical utility of whole-genome DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic assay for central nervous system tumors-A prospective study and guidelines for clinical testing

Galbraith, Kristyn; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Serrano, Jonathan; Shen, Guomiao; Tran, Ivy; Abdallat, Nancy; Wen, Mandisa; Patel, Seema; Movahed-Ezazi, Misha; Faustin, Arline; Spino-Keeton, Marissa; Roberts, Leah Geiser; Maloku, Ekrem; Drexler, Steven A; Liechty, Benjamin L; Pisapia, David; Krasnozhen-Ratush, Olga; Rosenblum, Marc; Shroff, Seema; Boué, Daniel R; Davidson, Christian; Mao, Qinwen; Suchi, Mariko; North, Paula; Hopp, Amanda; Segura, Annette; Jarzembowski, Jason A; Parsons, Lauren; Johnson, Mahlon D; Mobley, Bret; Samore, Wesley; McGuone, Declan; Gopal, Pallavi P; Canoll, Peter D; Horbinski, Craig; Fullmer, Joseph M; Farooqui, Midhat S; Gokden, Murat; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Richardson, Timothy E; Umphlett, Melissa; Tsankova, Nadejda M; DeWitt, John C; Sen, Chandra; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Pacione, Donato; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Teresa Hidalgo, Eveline; Harter, David; William, Christopher M; Cordova, Christine; Kurz, Sylvia C; Barbaro, Marissa; Orringer, Daniel A; Karajannis, Matthias A; Sulman, Erik P; Gardner, Sharon L; Zagzag, David; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Allen, Jeffrey C; Golfinos, John G; Snuderl, Matija
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is the 10th leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for adults, but the leading cause in pediatric patients and young adults. The variety and complexity of histologic subtypes can lead to diagnostic errors. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that provides a tumor type-specific signature that can be used for diagnosis. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a prospective study using DNA methylation analysis as a primary diagnostic method for 1921 brain tumors. All tumors received a pathology diagnosis and profiling by whole genome DNA methylation, followed by next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing. Results were stratified by concordance between DNA methylation and histopathology, establishing diagnostic utility. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of the 1602 cases with a World Health Organization histologic diagnosis, DNA methylation identified a diagnostic mismatch in 225 cases (14%), 78 cases (5%) did not classify with any class, and in an additional 110 (7%) cases DNA methylation confirmed the diagnosis and provided prognostic information. Of 319 cases carrying 195 different descriptive histologic diagnoses, DNA methylation provided a definitive diagnosis in 273 (86%) cases, separated them into 55 methylation classes, and changed the grading in 58 (18%) cases. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:DNA methylation analysis is a robust method to diagnose primary CNS tumors, improving diagnostic accuracy, decreasing diagnostic errors and inconclusive diagnoses, and providing prognostic subclassification. This study provides a framework for inclusion of DNA methylation profiling as a primary molecular diagnostic test into professional guidelines for CNS tumors. The benefits include increased diagnostic accuracy, improved patient management, and refinements in clinical trial design.
PMID: 37476329
ISSN: 2632-2498
CID: 5536102

Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Characteristics of Diffuse Spinal Cord Gliomas

Garcia, Mekka R; Feng, Yang; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Galbraith, Kristyn; Serrano, Jonathan; Thomas, Cheddhi; Radmanesh, Alireza; Hidalgo, Eveline T; Harter, David H; Allen, Jeffrey C; Gardner, Sharon L; Osorio, Diana S; William, Christopher M; Zagzag, David; Boué, Daniel R; Snuderl, Matija
Diffuse spinal cord gliomas (SCGs) are rare tumors associated with a high morbidity and mortality that affect both pediatric and adult populations. In this retrospective study, we sought to characterize the clinical, pathological, and molecular features of diffuse SCG in 22 patients with histological and molecular analyses. The median age of our cohort was 23.64 years (range 1-82) and the overall median survival was 397 days. K27M mutation was significantly more prevalent in males compared to females. Gross total resection and chemotherapy were associated with improved survival, compared to biopsy and no chemotherapy. While there was no association between tumor grade, K27M status (p = 0.366) or radiation (p = 0.772), and survival, males showed a trend toward shorter survival. K27M mutant tumors showed increased chromosomal instability and a distinct DNA methylation signature.
PMID: 35997552
ISSN: 1554-6578
CID: 5338172

EANO, SNO and Euracan consensus review on the current management and future development of intracranial germ cell tumors in adolescents and young adults

Frappaz, Didier; Dhall, Girish; Murray, Matthew J; Goldman, Stuart; Faure Conter, Cecile; Allen, Jeffrey; Kortmann, Rolf Dieter; Haas-Kogen, Daphne; Morana, Giovanni; Finlay, Jonathan; Nicholson, James C; Bartels, Ute; Souweidane, Mark; Schönberger, Stefan; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Robertson, Patricia; Albanese, Assunta; Alapetite, Claire; Czech, Thomas; Lau, Chin C; Wen, Patrick; Schiff, David; Shaw, Dennis; Calaminus, Gabriele; Bouffet, Eric
The incidence of intracranial germ cell tumors (iGCT) is much lower in European and North American (E&NA) than in Asian population. However, E&NA cooperative groups have simultaneously developed with success treatment strategies with specific attention paid to long-term sequelae. Neurological sequelae may be reduced by establishing a diagnosis with an endoscopic biopsy and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum analysis, deferring the need to perform a radical surgery. Depending on markers and/or histological characteristics, patients are treated as either germinoma or non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT). Metastatic disease is defined by a positive CSF cytology and/or distant drops in craniospinal MRI. The combination of surgery and/or chemotherapy and radiation therapy is tailored according to grouping and staging. With more than 90% 5-year event-free survival (EFS), localized germinomas can be managed without aggressive surgery, and benefit from chemotherapy followed by whole ventricular irradiation with local boost. Bifocal germinomas are treated as non-metastatic entities. Metastatic germinomas may be cured with craniospinal irradiation. With a 5-year EFS over 70%, NGGCT benefit from chemotherapy followed by delayed surgery in case of residual disease, and some form of radiotherapy. Future strategies will aim at decreasing long-term side effects while preserving high cure rates.
PMID: 34724065
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5219272


Kanakamedala, Siri; Gardner, Sharon; Allen, Jeffrey; Nicolaides, Theodore; Pudel, Miriam; Roman, Elizabeth
ISSN: 1545-5009
CID: 5243872

Clinical value of DNA methylation in practice: A prospective molecular neuropathology study [Meeting Abstract]

Galbraith, Kristyn; Shen, Guomiao; Serrano, Jonathan; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Tran, Ivy; Movahed-Ezazi, Misha; Harter, David; Hidalgo, Eveline; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Orringer, Daniel; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Gardner, Sharon; William, Christopher; Zagzag, David; Allen, Jeffrey; Sulman, Erik; Golfinos, John; Snuderl, Matija
ISSN: 0022-3069
CID: 5244322

Phase I dose escalation and expansion trial of single agent ONC201 in pediatric diffuse midline gliomas following radiotherapy

Gardner, Sharon L; Tarapore, Rohinton S; Allen, Jeffrey; McGovern, Susan L; Zaky, Wafik; Odia, Yazmin; Daghistani, Doured; Diaz, Zuanel; Hall, Matthew D; Khatib, Ziad; Koschmann, Carl; Cantor, Evan; Kurokawa, Ryo; MacDonald, Tobey J; Aguilera, Dolly; Vitanza, Nicholas A; Mueller, Sabine; Kline, Cassie; Lu, Guangrong; Allen, Joshua E; Khatua, Soumen
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:ONC201, a dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) antagonist and caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) agonist, has induced durable tumor regressions in adults with recurrent H3 K27M-mutant glioma. We report results from the first phase I pediatric clinical trial of ONC201. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This open-label, multi-center clinical trial (NCT03416530) of ONC201 for pediatric H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma (DMG) or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) employed a dose-escalation and dose-expansion design. The primary endpoint was the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). A standard 3 + 3 dose escalation design was implemented. The target dose was the previously established adult RP2D (625 mg), scaled by body weight. Twenty-two pediatric patients with DMG/DIPG were treated following radiation; prior lines of systemic therapy in addition to radiation were permitted providing sufficient time had elapsed prior to study treatment. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The RP2D of orally administered ONC201 in this pediatric population was determined to be the adult RP2D (625 mg), scaled by body weight; no dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred. The most frequent treatment-emergent Grade 1-2 AEs were headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and increase in alanine aminotransferase. Pharmacokinetics were determined following the first dose: <i>T</i> <sub>1/2</sub>, 8.4 h; <i>T</i> <sub>max</sub>, 2.1 h; <i>C</i> <sub>max</sub>, 2.3 µg/mL; AUC<sub>0-tlast</sub>, 16.4 hµg/mL. Median duration of treatment was 20.6 weeks (range 5.1-129). Five (22.7%) patients, all of whom initiated ONC201 following radiation and prior to recurrence, were alive at 2 years from diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The adult 625 mg weekly RP2D of ONC201 scaled by body weight was well tolerated. Further investigation of ONC201 for DMG/DIPG is warranted.
PMID: 36382108
ISSN: 2632-2498
CID: 5384822

Phase 0 Clinical Trial of Everolimus in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma or Meningioma

Karajannis, Matthias A; Mauguen, Audrey; Maloku, Ekrem; Xu, Qingwen; Dunbar, Erin M; Plotkin, Scott R; Yaffee, Anna; Wang, Shiyang; Roland, J Thomas; Sen, Chandranath; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Golfinos, John G; Allen, Jeffrey C; Vitanza, Nicholas A; Chiriboga, Luis A; Schneider, Robert J; Deng, Jingjing; Neubert, Thomas A; Goldberg, Judith D; Zagzag, David; Giancotti, Filippo G; Blakeley, Jaishri O
Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling has been shown to diminish growth of meningiomas and schwannomas in preclinical studies, and clinical data suggest that everolimus, an orally administered mTORC1 inhibitor, may slow tumor progression in a subset of NF2 patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). To assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential mechanisms of treatment resistance, we performed a pre-surgical (phase 0) clinical trial of everolimus in patients undergoing elective surgery for VS or meningiomas. Eligible patients with meningioma or VS requiring tumor resection enrolled on study received everolimus 10 mg daily for 10 days immediately prior to surgery. Everolimus blood levels were determined immediately prior to and after surgery. Tumor samples were collected intraoperatively. Ten patients completed protocol therapy. Median pre- and post-operative blood levels of everolimus were found to be in a high therapeutic range (17.4 ng/ml and 9.4 ng/ml, respectively). Median tumor tissue drug concentration determined by mass spectrometry was 24.3 pg/mg (range 9.2-169.2). We observed only partial inhibition of phospho-S6 in the treated tumors, indicating incomplete target inhibition compared to control tissues from untreated patients (p=0.025). Everolimus led to incomplete inhibition of mTORC1 and downstream signaling. These data may explain the limited anti-tumor effect of everolimus observed in clinical studies for NF2 patients and will inform the design of future pre-clinical and clinical studies targeting mTORC1 in meningiomas and schwannomas.
PMID: 34224367
ISSN: 1538-8514
CID: 4932142

REiNS: Reliability of Handheld Dynamometry to Measure Focal Muscle Weakness in Neurofibromatosis Types 1 and 2

Akshintala, Srivandana; Khalil, Nashwa; Yohay, Kaleb; Muzikansky, Alona; Allen, Jeffrey; Yaffe, Anna; Gross, Andrea M; Fisher, Michael J; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Oberlander, Beverly; Pudel, Miriam; Engelson, Celia; Obletz, Jaime; Mitchell, Carole; Widemann, Brigitte C; Stevenson, David A; Plotkin, Scott R
OBJECTIVE:To determine a suitable outcome measure for assessing muscle strength in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and type 2 (NF2) clinical trials, we evaluated the intra-observer reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD) and developed consensus recommendations for its use in neurofibromatosis clinical trials. METHODS:Patients ≥5 years with weakness in at least 1 muscle group by manual muscle testing (MMT) were eligible. Maximal isometric muscle strength of a weak muscle group and the biceps of the dominant arm were measured by HHD. An average of 3 repetitions per session was used as an observation, and 3 sessions with rest period between each were performed on the same day by a single observer. Intra- and inter-session intraclass correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated to assess reliability and measurement error. RESULTS:Twenty NF1 and 13 NF2 patients enrolled; median age was 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 9-17) and 29 years (IQR 22-38) respectively. By MMT, weak muscle strength ranged from 2-/5 to 4+/5. Biceps strength was 5/5 in all patients. Inter-session ICC for the weak muscles were 0.98 and 0.99 in the NF1 and NF2 cohorts respectively and for biceps were 0.97 and 0.97 respectively. The median CV for average session strength were 5.4% (IQR 2.6%-7.3%) and 2.9% (IQR 2.0%-6.2%) for weak muscles and biceps respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:HHD performed by a trained examiner with a well-defined protocol is a reliable technique to measure muscle strength in NF1 and NF2. Recommendations for strength testing in NF1 and NF2 trials are provided.
PMID: 34230196
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 4932172

Multi-institutional analysis of treatment modalities in basal ganglia and thalamic germinoma

Graham, Richard T; Abu-Arja, Mohammad H; Stanek, Joseph R; Cappellano, Andrea; Coleman, Christina; Chi, Susan; Cooney, Tabitha; Dhall, Girish; Ellen, Jacob G; Finlay, Jonathan L; Fisher, Michael J; Friedman, Gregory K; Gajjar, Amar; Gauvain, Karen; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Hukin, Juliette; Lucas, John T; Mueller, Sabine; Navalkele, Pournima; Ronsley, Rebecca; Tinkle, Christopher; Villeneuve, Stephanie; Yeo, Kee Kiat; Su, Jack M; Margol, Ashley; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Allen, Jeffrey; Packer, Roger; Bartels, Ute; Abdelbaki, Mohamed S
BACKGROUND:Central nervous system (CNS) germinomas are treatment-sensitive tumors with excellent survival outcomes. Current treatment strategies combine chemotherapy with radiotherapy (RT) in order to reduce the field and dose of RT. Germinomas originating in the basal ganglia/thalamus (BGTGs) have proven challenging to treat given their rarity and poorly defined imaging characteristics. Craniospinal (CSI), whole brain (WBI), whole ventricle (WVI), and focal RT have all been utilized; however, the best treatment strategy remains unclear. METHODS:Retrospective multi-institutional analysis has been conducted across 18 institutions in four countries. RESULTS:For 43 cases of nonmetastatic BGTGs, the 5- and 10-year event-free survivals (EFS) were 85.8% and 81.0%, respectively, while the 5- and 10-year overall survivals (OS) were 100% and 95.5%, respectively (one patient fatality from unrelated cause). Median RT doses were as follows: CSI: 2250 cGy/cGy(RBE) (1980-2400); WBI: 2340 cGy/cGy(RBE) (1800-3000); WVI: 2340 cGy/cGy(RBE) (1800-2550); focal: 3600 cGy (3060-5400). Thirty-eight patients (90.5%) received chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in the EFS based on initial field extent (p = .84). Nevertheless, no relapses were reported in patients who received CSI or WBI. Chemotherapy alone had significantly inferior EFS compared to combined therapy (p = .0092), but patients were salvageable with RT. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with BGTGs have excellent outcomes and RT proved to be an integral component of the treatment plan. This group of patients should be included in future prospective clinical trials and the best RT field should be investigated further.
PMID: 34125480
ISSN: 1545-5017
CID: 4907222