Implementation of rheumatology health care transition processes and adaptations to systems under stress: a mixed methods study
Chang, Joyce C; Sears, Cora; Bitencourt, Nicole; Peterson, Rosemary; Alperin, Risa; Goh, Y Ingrid; Overbury, Rebecca S; Sadun, Rebecca; Smitherman, Emily; White, Patience H; Lawson, Erica F; Carandang, Kristine
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Despite poor healthcare transition outcomes among young adults with pediatric rheumatic diseases, adoption of transition best practices is low. We sought to understand how structured transition processes were operationalized within pediatric rheumatology practices and what factors were perceived to enable adaptations during a global pandemic. METHODS:We conducted a mixed methods study of team leaders' experiences during an interim analysis of a pilot project to implement transition policy discussions at sites in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Transition Learning Collaborative. We combined quantitative assessments of organizational readiness for change (9 sites) and semi-structured interviews of team leaders (8 sites) using determinants in the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment Framework. RESULTS:Engagement of nursing and institutional improvement efforts facilitated decisions to implement transition policies. Workflows incorporating educational processes by non-physicians were perceived to be critical for success. When the pandemic disrupted contact with non-physicians, capacity for automation using electronic medical record (EMR)-based tools was an important facilitator, but few sites could access these tools. Sites without EMR-based tools did not progress despite reporting high organizational readiness to implement change at the clinic level. Lastly, educational processes were often superseded by acute issues, such that youth with greater medical/psychosocial complexity may not receive the intervention. CONCLUSIONS:We generated several considerations to guide implementation of transition processes within pediatric rheumatology from the perspectives of team leaders. Careful assessment of institutional and nursing support is advisable before conducting complex transition interventions. Ideally, new strategies would ensure interventions reach youth with high complexity.
Mucocutaneous Manifestations of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Young, Trevor K; Shaw, Katharina S; Shah, Jinal K; Noor, Asif; Alperin, Risa A; Ratner, Adam J; Orlow, Seth J; Betensky, Rebecca A; Shust, Gail F; Kahn, Philip J; Oza, Vikash S
Importance/UNASSIGNED:To date, no study has characterized the mucocutaneous features seen in hospitalized children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or the temporal association of these findings with the onset of systemic symptoms. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To describe the mucocutaneous findings seen in children with MIS-C during the height of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective case series was conducted of 35 children admitted to 2 hospitals in New York City between April 1 and July 14, 2020, who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and/or epidemiologic criteria for MIS-C. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Laboratory and clinical characteristics, with emphasis on mucocutaneous findings, of children who met criteria for MIS-C. The characterization of mucocutaneous features was verified by 2 board-certified pediatric dermatologists. Results/UNASSIGNED:Twenty-five children (11 girls [44%]; median age, 3 years [range, 0.7-17 years]) were identified who met definitional criteria for MIS-C; an additional 10 children (5 girls [50%]; median age, 1.7 years [range, 0.2-15 years]) were included as probable MIS-C cases (patients met all criteria with the exception of laboratory test evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection or known exposure). The results of polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2 were positive for 10 patients (29%), and the results of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G tests were positive for 19 patients (54%). Of the 35 patients, 29 (83%) exhibited mucocutaneous changes, with conjunctival injection (nâ€‰=â€‰21), palmoplantar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰18), lip hyperemia (nâ€‰=â€‰17), periorbital erythema and edema (nâ€‰=â€‰7), strawberry tongue (nâ€‰=â€‰8), and malar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰6) being the most common findings. Recognition of mucocutaneous findings occurred a mean of 2.7 days (range, 1-7 days) after the onset of fever. The duration of mucocutaneous findings varied from hours to days (median duration, 5 days [range, 0-11 days]). Neither the presence nor absence of mucocutaneous findings was significantly associated with overall disease severity. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series of hospitalized children with suspected MIS-C during the COVID-19 pandemic, a wide spectrum of mucocutaneous findings was identified. Despite their protean and transient nature, these mucocutaneous features serve as important clues in the recognition of MIS-C.
A case of acquired Brown syndrome treated with adalimumab [Case Report]
Michels, Kristi L; Kurup, Sudhi P; Curran, Megan L; Alperin, Risa; De Leon, Erika; Mets-Halgrimson, Rebecca
We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with acquired Brown syndrome of inflammatory origin. Without evidence of systemic inflammation, the disease typically resolves with oral steroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Refractory cases can be treated with local steroid injections or surgery. The present case of inflammatory Brown syndrome did not respond to conservative therapy, and parental concerns and wishes precluded more invasive treatments. Adalimumab was initiated and led to complete resolution of the disease.
Prolonged improvement of childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus following systematic administration of rituximab and cyclophosphamide
Lehman, Thomas Ja; Singh, Chahait; Ramanathan, Anusha; Alperin, Risa; Adams, Alexa; Barinstein, Laura; Moorthy, Nandini
BACKGROUND: Although the combination of cyclophosphamide and rituximab has been utilized in case reports, there are no previous reports of the long term outcome of SLE treated systematically with this regimen. We report a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a systematically administered course of rituximab and cyclophosphamide over an eighteen month period to provide sustained improvement in childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). FINDINGS: Twelve patients with childhood onset lupus nephritis or corticosteroid resistant SLE received systematic treatment with a combination of rituximab (750 mg/M2 up to 1 gram) and cyclophosphamide (750 mg/M2: no patient exceeded 1.8 M2). Two administrations of rituximab and cyclophosphamide, two weeks apart, were administered at the start of study, six months later, and eighteen months later. Clinical data were collected and analyzed after sixty months of follow up. There was sustained improvement in all clinical parameters with a dramatic reduction in both mean SLEDAI score (10.1 to 1 at one year and 0 at five years p<0.005) and mean daily prednisone dosage (29.7 mg/day to 12.7 by one year and 7.0 mg/day at five years p<0.005), with sustained improvement in mean C3 (55.5 mg/ml to 113 at one year and 107.5 at five years p<0.001) which was maintained through sixty months of follow up. Serum immunoglobulin levels were transiently depressed but mean values were within the normal range for both IgG and IgM at one and five years. Few complications were observed (two episodes of febrile neutropenia during the first year of treatment were the only serious adverse events) and patients routinely reported sustained wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that a systematically administered course of rituximab and cyclophosphamide over an eighteen month period provided sustained relief for patients with childhood onset SLE which was maintained over a sixty month period, while minimizing the need for corticosteroids, without excessive toxicity.
Prolonged Improvement of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Following Systematic Administration of Rituximab and Cyclophosphamide [Meeting Abstract]
Lehman, Thomas JA; Baird, Emily; Ramanathan, Anusha; Alperin, Risa; MacDermott, Emma J; Adams, Alexa B; Barinstein, Laura V; Moorthy, Lakshmi N