person:alum01 or dabovb01 or mezzav01 or dbh274 or loomic01 or selvas05 or dewanz01
Digital spatial profiling to predict recurrence in grade 3 stage I lung adenocarcinoma
OBJECTIVE:Early-stage lung adenocarcinoma is treated with local therapy alone, although patients with grade 3 stage I lung adenocarcinoma have a 50% 5-year recurrence rate. Our objective is to determine if analysis of the tumor microenvironment can create a predictive model for recurrence. METHODS:Thirty-four patients with grade 3 stage I lung adenocarcinoma underwent surgical resection. Digital spatial profiling was used to perform genomic (n = 31) and proteomic (n = 34) analyses of pancytokeratin positive and negative tumor cells. K-means clustering was performed on the top 50 differential genes and top 20 differential proteins, with Kaplan-Meier recurrence curves based on patient clustering. External validation of high-expression genes was performed with Kaplan-Meier plotter. RESULTS:There were no significant clinicopathologic differences between patients who did (n = 14) and did not (n = 20) have recurrence. Median time to recurrence was 806 days; median follow-up with no recurrence was 2897 days. K-means clustering of pancytokeratin positive genes resulted in a model with a Kaplan-Meier curve with concordance index of 0.75. K-means clustering for pancytokeratin negative genes was less successful at differentiating recurrence (concordance index 0.6). Genes upregulated or downregulated for recurrence were externally validated using available public databases. Proteomic data did not reach statistical significance but did internally validate the genomic data described. CONCLUSIONS:Genomic difference in lung adenocarcinoma may be able to predict risk of recurrence. After further validation, stratifying patients by this risk may help guide who will benefit from adjuvant therapy.
A comparative study of in vitro air-liquid interface culture models of the human airway epithelium evaluating cellular heterogeneity and gene expression at single cell resolution
BACKGROUND:The airway epithelium is composed of diverse cell types with specialized functions that mediate homeostasis and protect against respiratory pathogens. Human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures at air-liquid interface are a physiologically relevant in vitro model of this heterogeneous tissue and have enabled numerous studies of airway disease. HAE cultures are classically derived from primary epithelial cells, the relatively limited passage capacity of which can limit experimental methods and study designs. BCi-NS1.1, a previously described and widely used basal cell line engineered to express hTERT, exhibits extended passage lifespan while retaining the capacity for differentiation to HAE. However, gene expression and innate immune function in BCi-NS1.1-derived versus primary-derived HAE cultures have not been fully characterized. METHODS:BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures (n = 3 independent differentiations) and primary-derived HAE cultures (n = 3 distinct donors) were characterized by immunofluorescence and single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq). Innate immune functions were evaluated in response to interferon stimulation and to infection with viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. RESULTS:We confirm at high resolution that BCi-NS1.1- and primary-derived HAE cultures are largely similar in morphology, cell type composition, and overall gene expression patterns. While we observed cell-type specific expression differences of several interferon stimulated genes in BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures, we did not observe significant differences in susceptibility to infection with influenza A virus and Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results further support BCi-NS1.1-derived HAE cultures as a valuable tool for the study of airway infectious disease.
MAVS signaling is required for preventing persistent chikungunya heart infection and chronic vascular tissue inflammation
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has been associated with severe cardiac manifestations, yet, how CHIKV infection leads to heart disease remains unknown. Here, we leveraged both mouse models and human primary cardiac cells to define the mechanisms of CHIKV heart infection. Using an immunocompetent mouse model of CHIKV infection as well as human primary cardiac cells, we demonstrate that CHIKV directly infects and actively replicates in cardiac fibroblasts. In immunocompetent mice, CHIKV is cleared from cardiac tissue without significant damage through the induction of a local type I interferon response from both infected and non-infected cardiac cells. Using mice deficient in major innate immunity signaling components, we found that signaling through the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) is required for viral clearance from the heart. In the absence of MAVS signaling, persistent infection leads to focal myocarditis and vasculitis of the large vessels attached to the base of the heart. Large vessel vasculitis was observed for up to 60 days post infection, suggesting CHIKV can lead to vascular inflammation and potential long-lasting cardiovascular complications. This study provides a model of CHIKV cardiac infection and mechanistic insight into CHIKV-induced heart disease, underscoring the importance of monitoring cardiac function in patients with CHIKV infections.
Author Correction: Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the effects of chemotherapy on human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its tumor microenvironment
Calcitonin Related Polypeptide Alpha Mediates Oral Cancer Pain
Oral cancer patients suffer pain at the site of the cancer. Calcitonin gene related polypeptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide expressed by a subset of primary afferent neurons, promotes oral cancer growth. CGRP also mediates trigeminal pain (migraine) and neurogenic inflammation. The contribution of CGRP to oral cancer pain is investigated in the present study. The findings demonstrate that CGRP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and neurites innervate orthotopic oral cancer xenograft tumors in mice. Cancer increases anterograde transport of CGRP in axons innervating the tumor, supporting neurogenic secretion as the source of CGRP in the oral cancer microenvironment. CGRP antagonism reverses oral cancer nociception in preclinical oral cancer pain models. Single-cell RNA-sequencing is used to identify cell types in the cancer microenvironment expressing the CGRP receptor components, receptor activity modifying protein 1 Ramp1 and calcitonin receptor like receptor (CLR, encoded by Calcrl). Ramp1 and Calcrl transcripts are detected in cells expressing marker genes for Schwann cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. Ramp1 and Calcrl transcripts are more frequently detected in cells expressing fibroblast and immune cell markers. This work identifies CGRP as mediator of oral cancer pain and suggests the antagonism of CGRP to alleviate oral cancer pain.
Spatial transcriptomics stratifies psoriatic disease severity by emergent cellular ecosystems
Whereas the cellular and molecular features of human inflammatory skin diseases are well characterized, their tissue context and systemic impact remain poorly understood. We thus profiled human psoriasis (PsO) as a prototypic immune-mediated condition with a high predilection for extracutaneous involvement. Spatial transcriptomics (ST) analyses of 25 healthy, active lesion, and clinically uninvolved skin biopsies and integration with public single-cell transcriptomics data revealed marked differences in immune microniches between healthy and inflamed skin. Tissue-scale cartography further identified core disease features across all active lesions, including the emergence of an inflamed suprabasal epidermal state and the presence of B lymphocytes in lesional skin. Both lesional and distal nonlesional samples were stratified by skin disease severity and not by the presence of systemic disease. This segregation was driven by macrophage-, fibroblast-, and lymphatic-enriched spatial regions with gene signatures associated with metabolic dysfunction. Together, these findings suggest that mild and severe forms of PsO have distinct molecular features and that severe PsO may profoundly alter the cellular and metabolic composition of distal unaffected skin sites. In addition, our study provides a valuable resource for the research community to study spatial gene organization of healthy and inflamed human skin.
A neonatal mouse model characterizes transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants and reveals a role for ORF8
Small animal models have been a challenge for the study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with most investigators using golden hamsters or ferrets. Mice have the advantages of low cost, wide availability, less regulatory and husbandry challenges, and the existence of a versatile reagent and genetic toolbox. However, adult mice do not robustly transmit SARS-CoV-2. Here we establish a model based on neonatal mice that allows for transmission of clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We characterize tropism, respiratory tract replication and transmission of ancestral WA-1 compared to variants Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), Omicron BA.1 and Omicron BQ.1.1. We identify inter-variant differences in timing and magnitude of infectious particle shedding from index mice, both of which shape transmission to contact mice. Furthermore, we characterize two recombinant SARS-CoV-2 lacking either the ORF6 or ORF8 host antagonists. The removal of ORF8 shifts viral replication towards the lower respiratory tract, resulting in significantly delayed and reduced transmission in our model. Our results demonstrate the potential of our neonatal mouse model to characterize viral and host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, while revealing a role for an accessory protein in this context.
Hedgehog and PDGF Signaling Intersect During Postnatal Lung Development
Normal lung development critically depends on Hedgehog (HH) and Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, which coordinate mesenchymal differentiation and proliferation. PDGF signaling is required for postnatal alveolar septum formation by myofibroblasts. Recently, we demonstrated a requirement for HH in postnatal lung development involving alveolar myofibroblast differentiation. Given shared features of HH and PDGF signaling and their impact/convergence on this key cell type, we sought to clarify their relationship during murine postnatal lung development. Timed experiments revealed that HH inhibition phenocopies the key lung myofibroblast phenotypes of Pdgfa and Pdgfra knockouts during secondary alveolar septation. Utilizing a dual signaling reporter, Gli1IZ;PdgfraEGFP
A neonatal mouse model characterizes transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 variants and reveals a role for ORF8
Small animal models have been a challenge for the study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with most investigators using golden hamsters or ferrets 1,2 . Mice have the advantages of low cost, wide availability, less regulatory and husbandry challenges, and the existence of a versatile reagent and genetic toolbox. However, adult mice do not transmit SARS-CoV-2 3 . Here we establish a model based on neonatal mice that allows for transmission of clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We characterize tropism, respiratory tract replication and transmission of ancestral WA-1 compared to variants alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), gamma (P.1), delta (B.1.617.2) and omicron (B.1.1.529). We identify inter-variant differences in timing and magnitude of infectious particle shedding from index mice, both of which shape transmission to contact mice. Furthermore, we characterize two recombinant SARS-CoV-2 lacking either the ORF6 or ORF8 host antagonists. The removal of ORF8 shifts viral replication towards the lower respiratory tract, resulting in significantly delayed and reduced transmission. Our results demonstrate the potential of our neonatal mouse model to characterize viral and host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, while revealing for the first time a role for an accessory protein this context.
Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of NF1-mutant melanoma identify potential targeted approach for treatment
There is currently no targeted therapy to treat NF1-mutant melanomas. Herein, we compared the genomic and transcriptomic signatures of NF1-mutant and NF1-WT melanoma to reveal potential treatment targets for this subset of patients. Genomic alterations were verified using qPCR, and differentially expressed genes were independently validated using TCGA data, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Digital spatial profiling (DSP) with multiplex IHC and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to validate the signatures. The efficacy of combinational regimens driven by these signatures was tested through in vitro assays using low-passage cell lines. Pathogenic NF1 mutations were identified in 27% cases. NF1-mutant melanoma expressed higher proliferative markers MK167 and CDC20 compared to NF1-WT (P=0.008), which was independently validated both in the TCGA dataset (P=0.01, P=0.03) and with IHC (P=0.013, P=0.036), respectively. DSP analysis showed upregulation of LY6E within the tumor cells [FDR<0.01, lg2FC>1], confirmed with multiplex IF showing co-localization of LY6E in melanoma cells. The combination of MEK and CDC20 co-inhibition induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects, decreasing CDC20 expression in multiple NF1-MUT cell lines. In conclusion, NF1-mutant melanoma is associated with a distinct genomic and transcriptomic profile. Our data support investigating CDC20 inhibition with MAPK pathway inhibitors as a targeted regimen in this melanoma subtype.