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The challenging case conference: initial observations and feedback

Patel, Sohil Harshad; Ambrosino, Michael M; McGuinness, Georgeann
PMID: 22954551
ISSN: 1546-1440
CID: 178063

Suspected appendicitis in children: focused CT technique for evaluation

Fefferman NR; Roche KJ; Pinkney LP; Ambrosino MM; Genieser NB
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of a focused computed tomographic (CT) technique with oral and intravenous contrast materials for the diagnosis of appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three abdominal-pelvic contrast material-enhanced CT scans obtained during 6 years in 54 girls and 39 boys (age range, 1-18 years) with right lower quadrant pain were retrospectively reviewed. The detected abnormal findings were recorded as being in the region above the upper pole of the right kidney, between the upper pole of the right kidney and the lower pole of the right kidney (RLP), or below the iliac crest. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. chi(2) analysis was performed to determine whether there were significant differences among patient groups according to region of detected disease. RESULTS: Fifty-five scans were abnormal: 38 showed appendicitis; and 17, other diseases. No scans, except two that showed pneumonia, had key findings above the RLP. Nineteen scans showed key findings between the RLP and the iliac crest. Thirty-three scans had diagnostic findings only below the iliac crest. The sensitivity (97%), specificity (93%), positive predictive value (90%), and negative predictive value (98%) of interpretation with all images for the diagnosis of appendicitis were the same as those of interpretation with only the focused images. CONCLUSION: CT performed to diagnose appendicitis can be limited to the region below the RLP
PMID: 11526268
ISSN: 0033-8419
CID: 26676

Abdominal MR imaging with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination

Rofsky NM; Lee VS; Laub G; Pollack MA; Krinsky GA; Thomasson D; Ambrosino MM; Weinreb JC
PURPOSE: To compare a T1-weighted, three-dimensional (3D), gradient-echo (GRE) sequence for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the body (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, or VIBE) with a two-dimensional (2D) GRE breath-hold equivalent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients underwent 1.5-T MR imaging. The examinations included pre- and postcontrast (20 mL gadopentetate dimeglumine) fat-saturated 2D GRE breath-hold imaging and fat-saturated volumetric interpolated breath-hold imaging before, during (arterial phase), and after injection, with thin (2-mm source images) and thick (8-mm reconstruction images) sections. The three images were compared qualitatively and quantitatively (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR] and contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]). RESULTS: Qualitatively, the 2-mm source images had poorer pancreatic edge definition on precontrast images compared with the other two data sets (P < .05). On gadolinium-enhanced images, scores for clarity of pancreatic edge, number of vessels visualized, and arterial ghosting were significantly lower for the postcontrast 2D GRE images. Quantitatively, SNR measurements in the liver, aorta, and renal cortex on pre- and postcontrast images were significantly higher for the 8-mm reconstruction images than for the 2D GRE or 2-mm source images (P < .05). Aorta-to-fat CNR was significantly higher on the 8-mm reconstruction images. CONCLUSION: Fat-saturated volumetric interpolated breath-hold images have quality comparable to that of conventional fat-saturated 2D GRE images
PMID: 10478260
ISSN: 0033-8419
CID: 6197

MR findings in Shone's complex of left heart obstructive lesions [Case Report]

Roche KJ; Genieser NB; Ambrosino MM; Henry GL
BACKGROUND: Shone's complex is a series of four obstructive or potentially obstructive left-sided cardiac lesions (supravalvular mitral ring, parachute deformity of the mitral value, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta). Both the complete form (all four lesions) and incomplete forms (less than four lesions) have been described. OBJECTIVE: To determine which abnormalities of Shone's complex could be characterized by MR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR examinations in three patients (one complete, two incomplete) were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A supravalvular mitral ring, found at surgery in one patient, was not identified. Regurgitant and stenotic flow across the mitral valve, abnormal motion of the valve leaflets and abnormalities of the papillary muscles were identified. Individual chordal attachments were difficult to resolve. Narrowing in the subaortic region and abnormal flow from the subaortic region through the valve plane were demonstrated. A discrete subaortic diaphragm in one patient was not resolved. Both focal and diffuse types of coarctation of the aorta were well characterized. CONCLUSION: MR imaging is suited to evaluation of patients with Shone's complex. Individual chordal attachments and thin diaphragms of the mitral and aortic valves were difficult to resolve
PMID: 9799314
ISSN: 0301-0449
CID: 7760

Resonance imaging of a ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva [Case Report]

Roche KJ; Genieser NB; Ambrosino MM
Ruptured aneurysm of an aortic sinus of Valsalva is a rare cause of left-to-right shunting. We show how resonance imaging can be used to make the diagnosis. This technique can successfully characterize the shunt as well as determine the presence of associated anomalies, such as ventricular septation and aortic regurgitation. It may be the only study required prior to therapeutic intervention
PMID: 9731658
ISSN: 1047-9511
CID: 57068

Gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA of the aortic arch vessels in the detection of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusive disease

Krinsky G; Maya M; Rofsky N; Lebowitz J; Nelson PK; Ambrosino M; Kaminer E; Earls J; Masters L; Giangola G; Litt A; Weinreb J
PURPOSE: Our goal was to evaluate non-breath-hold Gd-enhanced 3D MR angiography (MRA) for the detection of atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the aortic arch vessels and to compare image quality with two breath-hold techniques. METHOD: One hundred sixty consecutive patients with known or clinically suspected atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusive disease underwent Gd-enhanced 3D MRA of the aortic arch and great vessels. One hundred twenty-six examinations were performed with the body coil after infusion of 40 ml of Gd-DTPA; 89 of these were performed without breath-holding and 37 were acquired during suspended respiration. Thirty-four examinations were performed in a body phased-array coil with breath-holding, a timing examination, and 20 ml of contrast agent by manual (n = 17) or power (n = 17) injection. Images were evaluated for the presence of blurring and ghosting artifacts and venous enhancement. Of the 27 patients who underwent non-breath-hold MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), two readers blinded to the DSA results retrospectively evaluated the MRA examinations for the presence of occlusive disease of the innominate, carotid, subclavian, and vertebral arteries. DSA correlation was not evaluated for the 71 breath-hold studies. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity for arch vessel occlusive disease with non-breath-hold MRA were 38 and 94% for Reader A and 38 and 95% for Reader B. Breath-holding significantly reduced blurring and ghosting artifacts (p < 0.001) when compared with non-breath-hold imaging, and use of 20 ml of contrast medium, with a timing examination, resulted in significantly less venous enhancement than seen with 40 ml (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Non-breath-hold Gd-enhanced 3D MRA is insensitive for detecting arch vessel occlusive disease. Breath-hold imaging, in conjunction with a timing examination and a lower dose of contrast agent, improves image quality, but further studies are needed to assess diagnostic accuracy
PMID: 9530375
ISSN: 0363-8715
CID: 7635

Rapid T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyoma and adenomyosis

Krinsky G; DeCorato DR; Rofsky NM; Flyer M; Earls JP; Ambrosino M; Wan L; Weinreb JC
BACKGROUND: To compare three rapid T2-weighted pulse sequences with high-resolution turbo spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the diagnosis of leiomyoma and adenomyosis. METHODS: Eighteen patients referred for evaluation of suspected leiomyoma or adenomyosis underwent imaging at 1.5 T with a phased-array multicoil. Non-breath-hold, fat-saturated sagittal images of 4-7 mm, with equivalent voxel size, were obtained through the pelvis with the following three rapid pulse sequences: segmented, half-Fourier single shot turbo SE (HASTE), turboGRASE (TGSE) and turbo SE MR images. Mean acquisition times were 17 s (HASTE), 37 s (TGSE), and 42 s (turbo SE). These images were compared, in a blinded fashion, to high resolution turbo SE MR images, which are considered the 'standard' for pelvic MRI. RESULTS: The three rapid pulse sequences, HASTE, TGSE and turbo SE, provided equivalent diagnostic information when compared with high-resolution turbo SE MR images. There was no significant difference in image quality, detection and localization of leiomyoma or in diagnosis of adenomyosis among the three rapid sequences. HASTE imaging demonstrated the least ghosting. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic T2-weighted images of benign uterine pathology may be obtained in as little as 17 s
PMID: 9233895
ISSN: 0942-8925
CID: 7187

Retroperitoneal pulmonary sequestration: imaging findings, histopathologic correlation, and relationship to cystic adenomatoid malformation

Hernanz-Schulman, M; Johnson, J E; Holcomb, G W 3rd; Neblett, W W 3rd; Heller, R M; Ambrosino, M M
OBJECTIVE: Retroperitoneal bronchopulmonary sequestrations are rare congenital lesions that have been increasingly reported as incidental findings in utero. We present our case material of congenital retroperitoneal sequestration, discuss the reported imaging and histopathologic characteristics of this entity, and provide an approach to subsequent clinical and surgical management. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the imaging findings in retroperitoneal sequestration are characteristic and that faulty mesenchymal induction of pulmonary tissue within the retroperitoneum renders internal development into cystic adenomatoid malformation the rule rather than the exception. In the typical case, surgical removal is nonemergent
PMID: 9129426
ISSN: 0361-803x
CID: 124512

Comparison between in-phase and opposed-phase T1-weighted breath-hold FLASH sequences for hepatic imaging

Rofsky NM; Weinreb JC; Ambrosino MM; Safir J; Krinsky G
PURPOSE: Our goal was to compare in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) sequences for GRE breath-hold hepatic imaging. METHOD: Non-contrast-enhanced IP and OP GRE breath-hold images were obtained in 104 consecutive patients referred for abdominal MRI at 1.0 T. For both sequences, the TR, FA, matrix, FOV, slice thickness, interslice gap, and measurements were kept constant. Images were compared quantitatively [liver/spleen and liver/lesion signal difference/noise ratio, (SD/N)] and qualitatively (artifacts, lesion detection and conspicuity, and intrahepatic anatomy). RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference when comparing IP and OP sequences for liver/spleen and liver/lesion SD/N or for the qualitative parameters. In patients with fatty infiltration, the OP sequences yielded substantially lower values for liver/spleen and liver/lesion SD/N (0.9 and -1.2, respectively) than the IP sequences (20 and 17, respectively). Furthermore, in several cases with fatty infiltration, many more lesions were identified using IP images. CONCLUSION: The use of IP and OP GRE sequences provides complementary diagnostic information. Focal liver lesions may be obscured in the setting of fatty infiltration if only OP sequences are employed. A complete assessment of the liver with MR should include both IP and OP imaging
PMID: 8606229
ISSN: 0363-8715
CID: 6954

Pediatric hepatic CT: an injection protocol

Roche KJ; Genieser NB; Ambrosino MM
OBJECTIVE. To determine an injection protocol for pediatric hepatic CT and to investigate the use of power injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eighty-seven studies were prospectively performed using ioversol (320 mg iodine per cc) at 2 cc/kg. Three techniques were used: helical (1 s/slice); dynamic, non-breath-hold (5.5 s/slice); dynamic, breath-hold (10 s/slice) scans. The liver-scan time for each study was determined. Scan initiation ranged from 25 to 80 s. An injection duration (50-100 seconds) was selected. From the contrast volume (2 cc/kg x kg body wt) and injection duration, the injection rate (cc/s) was calculated for each patient. Each study was grouped by injection rate corrected for body weight (cc/kg/min) into: 1.2-1.5, 1.51-2.0, and 2.01-2.4. The aortic/liver attenuation curves were plotted for each group. RESULTS. Liver-scan time for helical studies was a mean of 26 s, for dynamic, non-breath-hold studies 75 s, dynamic breath-hold scans were 154 s. Injection rates of 1.2-1.5 cc/kg/min produced a scanning interval of 165 s. Injection rates of 1.51-2.0 cc/kg/min produced a scanning interval of 120 s. Injection rates of 2.01-2.4 cc/kg/min produced a scanning interval of 90 s. There was no increase in hepatic attenuation for the injection rates 2.01-2.4 cc/kg/min compared with 1.51-2.0 cc/kg/min. There was one complication related to injection through a central line. CONCLUSIONS. An injection protocol was determined for helical studies with injection rates of 1.7-2.0 cc/kg/min with initiation at 60 s; for dynamic, non-breath-hold studies with injection rates of 1.5-1.7 cc/kg/min with initiation at 50 s; and for dynamic breath-hold studies with injection rates of 1.2-1.5 cc/kg/min with initiation at 45 s. Power injection was used safely in our population
PMID: 8753659
ISSN: 0301-0449
CID: 7041